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Full text of "Journal and proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales."

JOURNAL 



ROYAL SOCIETY 

NEW SIH Til WALES, 

1S7S. 



"VOL. XII. 




fr 



NOTICE. 

It is requested that all Communications respecting tfic 
Printing of the Journal of the Society, or List of 
Members, may be sent to Professor Liversidge, the 
Society's House, Elizabeth-street, Sydney. 



All Donations presented to the Society are acknowledged 
by letter, and in the printed Proceedings of the Society. 

The Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A., 
and Messrs. Trubncr & Co., 57, Ludgatc Ilill, London, 
have kindly undertaken to receive and forward parcels 
of books and printed matter intended for the Society. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



JOURNAL 



PROCEEDINGS 



ROYAL SOCIETY 

XEW SOUTH WALES, 

1878. 

"VOL. XII. 
Prof. LIVERSIDGE and Dr. LEIBIUS. 



Messrs. Triibner & Co., ;;. I.ml^nv Hii' : . London, E.C. 



THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 182 j 
as the " Philosophical Society of Australia" ; after an interval 
of inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
" Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales" ; and finally, in May, 1866, by the 
sanction of Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed 



<'oim;k;kxi).<\ 



CONTENTS. 



Art. II. 

KT. III. 



oir Botany and Economical 
ion-Woods, F.O.S.. F.L.S. 
f Tasmania. By the Rev. 



m T-rtiuy |-\.ssil Corals and 

>n to the assumed Longitude of 
. By John Tebbutt, F. R.A.N. 



XIV.— The Rise i 



"Sydney School 



Art. XIX.— Reports from the Sections 2. 

1. Note on the Planet Uranus. By John Tebbutt, 

F.R.A.S 

2. On the Longitude of Sydney Observatory. 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 

diagram.) By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 

4. Note on the Star " Brisbane 6183." By John 

Tebbutt, F.R.A.S 

5. Notes on the Observatories in the United 

States. By W. J. MacDonnell, F.R.A.S.... 

6. Clark's Companion of Sirius. By H. C. Russell, 

B.A., F.R.A.S 

7. The Triangle Micrometer. By H. C. Russell, 

B.A..F.R.A.S 

8. Notes on Jupiter during his Opposition, 1878. 

ByG. D. Hirst 

9. On Star-discs, and the separating power of 

Telescopes. By W. J. MacDonnell, F.R.A.S. 

10. Abstract of the Results of the Transit of 

Venus. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S.. 

11. Notes on the Geocentric Conjunction of 

Mars and Saturn, 1879. By John Tebbutt, 

12. Remarks on the Mounting of Large Object 

Glasses. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 

13. Ou a New Form of Equatorial Mounting. 

ByH. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.K 



15. Notes on the Incrustation of the Sydney 
Water Main. By Dr. Morris 

r Schools of Art 



Russell, B.A., F.R.A. 
XXL— List of Publicatioi 
XXII.-Lndex 



ic. By Mons. Jules Meilhan 

Abstract of the Meteorological Obser- 
"' Sydney Observatory. By H. C. 



%\t |lojmI cSocktg of |kfo j&mrfjj Mates. 



OFFICEBS FOE 1878-9. 



:M- l,.\t ELLENCY SIR HERCULES 



W. B. CLARKE. M.A.. E JLS . F.€hS. I OKB, June \Qth, 1878.) 
HON. J. SMITH, C.M.G., M.L.C., M.D., LL.D., &c. 
CHARLES MOORE, F.L.S. {Elected, July Zlst, 1878.) 



. ('. RIS-ELL. 



IHrE. I De. ADOLPH leibius. 



FITZOERALD, R. D., F.L.S. 
Cr i:\EY. PROFESSOR, MJ 
JONES, I*. SYDNEY, M.D. 



FUNDAMENTAL RULES. 

Object of the Society. 



.ustralia, and to illustrate 






I Management during the rear 



. The Honorary Membew of the Society shall be persons who have been 
nent benefactors to this or some other of the Australian Colonies, or dia- 
;uished patrons and promoters of the objects of the Society. Every person 

ted by the Societj Honorary Members shall be exempted from payment 
'ees and contributions ; they may attend the meetings of the Society, and 
y shall be furnished -with copies of Transactions and Proceedings published 



i Fundamental Rule 



BY-LAWS 

ted at a General Meeting of the Society, held June 7th, 1876. 



Ordinary General Meetings. 
T. An Ordinary General Meeting of the Royal Society, to be 
convened by public advertisement, shall take place at 8 p.m., on 
the first Wednesday in every month, during the last eight 
months of the year ; subjec-t io nltemiion by the Council with 
due notice. These meetings will be open for the reading of 
papers, and the discussion of subjects of every kind if brought 
forward in conformity with the Fundamental Eules and By- 
laws of the Society. 

Annual General Meeting. — Annual Reports. — Election of Officers. 
II. A G-eneral Meeting of the Society shall be held annually 
in May, to receive a Report from the Council on the state of 
the Society, and to elect Officers for the ensuing year. The 
Treasurer shall also at this meeting present the annual financial 



Election of the Officers and Council. 

III. The Officers and other members of the Council shall bo 
elected annually by ballot at the Annual General Meeting to be 
held in May. 

IV. It shall be the duty of the Council each year to prepare 
a list containing the names of members whom they recommend 
for election to the respective offices of Vice-Presidents and Hon. 
Secretaries and Hon. Treasurer, together with the names of six 
other members whom they recommend for election as ordinary 
members of Council. The names thus recommended shall be 
proposed at one meeting of the Council, and agreed to at a 




V. Each member present at the General Annual Meeting 
shall have the power to alter the list of names recommended by 
the Council, by adding to it the names of any eligible members 
not already included in it and removing from it an equivalent 
number of names, and he shall use this list with or without such 
alterations as a balloting list at the election of Officers and 
Council. 

Council Meetings. 

VI. Meetings of the Council of Management shall take place 
on the last Wednesday in every month, and on such other days 
as the Council may determine. 

Absence from Meetings of Council. — Quorum. 

VII. Any member of the Council absenting himself from three 
consecutive meetings of the Council, without giving a satisfactory 
explanation in writing, shall be considered to have vacated his 
office, and the election of a member to fill his place shall be 
proceeded with at the next Council meeting in accordance with 
Fundamental Rule 5. No business shall be transacted at any 
meeting of the Council unless three members are present. 

Duties of Secretaries. 

VIII. The Honorary Secretaries shall perform, or shall cause 
the Assistant Secretary to perform, the following duties :— 

1. Conduct the correspondence of the Society and Council. 

2. Attend the General Meetings of the Society and the 

meetings of the Council, to take minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of such meetings, and at the commencement 
of such to read aloud the minutes of the preceding 
meeting. 

3. At the Ordinary Meetings of the members, to announce 

the presents made to the Society since l heir last meet ins* ; 
to read the certificates of candidates for admission to 
the Society, and such original papers communicated to 
the Society as are not read by their respective authors. 
and the letters addressed to it. 



4. To make abstracts of the papers read at the Ordinary 

General Meetings, to be inserted in the Minutes and 
printed in the Proceedings. 

5. To edit the Transactions of the Society, and to superintend 

the making of an Index for the same. 

6. To be responsible for the arrangement and safe custody 

of the books, maps, plans, specimens, and other property 
of the Society. 

7. To make an entry of all books, maps, plans, pamphlets, 

&c, in the Library Catalogue, and of all presentations 
to the Society in the Donation Book. 

8. To keep an account of the issue and return of books, 

&c, borrowed by members of the Society, and to see 

the Library Book. 

9. To address to every person elected into the Society a 

printed copy of the Forms Nos. 2 and 3 (in the 
A.ppendix), together with a list of the mi'iiibers, a eopy 
of the Fundamental Kules and By-laws, am! a eard of 
the dates of meeting; and to get 
made to the Society, by Form No. 5. 

10. To cause due notice to be given of all M eetings of the 

Society and Council. 

11. To be in attendance at 4 p.m. on the afternoon of 

Wednesday in each week during the session. 

12. To keep a list of the attendances of the members of the 

Council at the Council Meetings and at the Ordinary 
General Meetings of the members of the Society, in 
order that the same may be laid before the Society at 
the Annual General Meeting held in the month of 
May. 
The Honorary Secretaries shall, by mutual agreement, divide 
he performance enumerated. 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by virtue of their office, be 
lembers of all Committees appointed by the Council. 



('',' ,i(/i, l.ifrs for ,,'haissi 



IX. Every cane 


lidatf f. 


»r admission as an ordinary memb 


the Society stall be recon 


intended according to a prescribed : 


by not less than 


three 1 


aembers, to two of whom lie mu 


personally known. 








Elecli 


on of new Members. 


X. The named 


of such 


i candidates, with the names of 


supporters, shrill bo read 1 


>y one of the Secretaries at an Ord 


General Meeting 


of the 


Society. The vole as to admissh 


take place by bal 


lot at the next subsequent meeting. A 


ballot the assent 


of at h 


>ast four-fifths of the members v 


shall be requisite 


for the admission of the candidate. 


New Members ft 


■> be informed of their election. 


XI. Every new- 




r shall receive due notification c 


election, and be st 


lpplied i 


vith a copy of the obligation (No. 


.Appendix), togetl 


,er with 


a copy of the Fundamental Rule 


By-laws of the g 


lociety, 


a list of members, and a card of 


dates of meeting. 







XII. An elected member shall not be entitled to attend the 
meetings or to enjoy any privilege of the Society, nor shall his 
name be printed in the list of the Society, until he shall have 
paid his admission fee and first annual subscription, and have 
returned to the Secretaries the obligation signed by himself. 

.. les — Formal admission. 

XIII. Every member who has complied with the preceding 
By-laws shall at the first Ordinary General Meeting at which 
he shall be present, sign a duplicate of the aforesaid obligation 
in a book to be kept for that purpose, after which he shall be 
presented by some member to the Chairman, who, addressing him 
by name, shall say :— " By the authority and in the name of the 
Eoyal Society of New South Wales I admit you a member 
thereof." 



XIV. Annual subser 
May for the year then c 

year's subscription of :i 



XV. Members who have not paid their subscriptions for the 
current year, on or before the olst of Mav. shall be informed of 
the fact by the Hon. Treasurer, and any member who shall be 
two years in arre.iv with his sui»eript ion- shall be considered to 



subsequent meetings 



•ty to withdraw from the 
ce to one of the Secretaries 
ruing all books or other 
dembers will be considered 
ions due from them up to 



nd seconded at the previous ordinary meeting, and that due 
uestion. within a week after i he meet milt a; u hieh such resolution 

Contributions to the Society. 
XVIII. Contributions to the Society, of whatever character, 
lust be sent to one of the Secretaries, to be laid before the 



Council of Management. It will be the duty of the Council to 
arrange for promulgation and discussion at an Ordinary Meeting 
such communications as are suitable for that purpose, as well aa 
to dispose of the whole in the manner best adapted to promote 
the objects of the Society. 

Order of Business. 
XIX. At the Ordinary G-eneral Meetings the business shall be 
transacted in the following order, unless the Chairman specially 
decide otherwise : — 

1 — Minutes of the preceding Meeting. 

2 — New Members to enrol their names and be introduced. 

3 — Ballot for the election of new Members. 

4 — Candidates tor membership to be proposed. 

5 — Business arising out of Minutes. 

6 — Communications from the Council. 

S— Donations to bo laid on the Table and acknowledged. 



11 — .Notices ot Motion lor the next Meeting to be given m. 

13— Discussion. 

14 — Notice of Papers for the next Meeting. 

Admission of Visitors. 
XX. Every ordinary member shall have the privilege of admit- 
ting two friends as visitors to an Ordinary GTeneral Meeting of 
the Society, on the following conditions : — 

1. That the name and residence of the visitors, together 

with the name of the member introducing them, be 
entered in a book at the time. 

2. That they shall not have attended 

meetings of the Society in the current 
The Council shall have power to introduce viB 
of the above restrictions. 



Manayement of Funds. 

XXI. The funds of the Society shall be lodged at a Bank 
named by the Council of Management. Claims against the 
Society, when approved by the Council, shall be paid by the 
Treasurer. 

Money Grants. 

XXII. Grants of money in aid of scientific purposes Irom the 
funds of the Society — to Sections or to members— shall expire on 
the 1st of November in each year. Such grants, if not expended, 



individual 
>ersonal expenses which 

Audit of Accounts. 

XXIV. Two Auditors shall be appointed annually, at an 
Ordinary Meeting, to audit the Treasurer's Accounts. The 
accounts as audited ro be laid before the Annual Meeting in 
May. 

Property of the Society to he rested in. the fire- Presidents, Sfc. 

XXV. All property whatever belonging to the Society shall be 
vested in the Vice-Presidents, Hon. Treasurer, and Hon. Secre- 
taries for the time being, in trust for the use of the Society ; but 
the Council shall have control over the disbursements of the funds 
and the management of the property of the Society. 

Library. 

XXVI. The Members of the Society shall have access to, and 
shall be entitled to borrow books from the Library, under such 
regulations as the Council may think necessary. 



Museum. 
jf the objects of the Society t 



Branch Societies. 
XXYI1I. The Society shall have power to form Branch 
Societies in other parts of the Colony. 

Sections. 
XXIX. To allow those members of the Society who devote 
attention to particular branches of science fuller opportunities 
and facilities of meeting and working together with fewer formal 
restrictions than are necessary at the general Monthly Meetings 
of the Society, — Sections or Committees may be established in 
the following branches of science : — 

, Mathematics, 



Section B.— Chemistry and Mineralogy, and their application 

to the Arts and Agriculture. 
Section C. — Geology and Palaeontology. 

Entomology. 
Section E. — Microscopical Science. 
Section F.— Geography and Ethnology. 
Section G. — Literature and the Fine Arts, including 

Architecture. 
Section H.— Medical. 
Section I. — Simiturv ;iiul Social Science and Statistics. 

Reports from Sections. 
XXX. There shall be for each Section a Chairman to preside 
at the meetings, and a Secretary to keep minutes of the pro- 
ceedings, who shall jointly prepare and forward to the Hon. 
Secretaries of the Society, on or before the 7th of November in 
each year, a report of the proceedings of the Section during 
that year, in order that the same may be transmitted to the 



! 



Section Committees— Card of Meetings. 

XXXI. The first meeting of each Section shall be appointed 
y the Council. At that meeting the members shall elect their 
\vn Chairman. Secretary, and a Committee of four ; and arrange 
he days and hours of their future meetings. A card showing 
he dates of each meeting for the current year shall be printed 
jr distribution amongst the members of the Society. 

Money Grants to Sections. 

XXXII. By application to the Council, grants of money may 
e made out of the General Funds of the Society to the Sections. 

Membership of Sections. 

XXXIII. No person who is not a member of the Society shall 
ave the privilege of joining any of the Sections. 



THE LIBRARY. 

1. During the Session, the Library shall be open for con 
tation and for the issue and return of books between -!• ai 
p.m. on the afternoon of each Wednesday, and between 7 and 
p.m. on the evenings of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 
during the recess (January to cud of April) on Wednesd; 
from 4 to 6 and 7 to 10 p.m. 

2. No book shall be issued without being signed for in 
Library Book. 

3. Members are not allowed to have more than two volui 
at a time from the Library, without special permission from ■ 
of the Honorary Secretaries, nor to retain a book for a Ion 
period than fourteen days ; but when a book is returned b 
member it may be borrowed by him again, provided it Las 
been bespoken by any other member. Books whkh have h 
bespoken shall circulate in rotation, according to priority 
application. 

4. Scientific Periodicals and Journals are not to be borro? 
until the volumes are complete! and bound 



o. Members : 



ug books longer than the 1 



shall be subject to a fine of sixpence per week for each volume. 

C. The books which have been issued shall be called in by the 
Secretaries twice a year ; and in the event of any book not being 
returned on those occasions, the member to whom it was issued 
shall be answerable for it, and shall be rennired to nVW +W 



Form No. 1. 
Royal Society of Jew South V 
Certificate of a Candidate for Elec 



The Society's Rooms, 

I have the honor to inform you that jou have this day been elected a 
member of the Royal Society of New South Wales, and I beg to forward to 
you a copy of the Fundamental Rules and By-laws of the Society, a printed 
copy of an obligation, a list of members, and a card announcing the dates 
of meeting during the present session. 

According to the Regulations of the Society (vide Rule No. 6), you are 
required to pay jour admission fee of one guinea, and annual subscription 

to sign and return the enclosed form . ;' uMi^ition at y. ur earliest convenience. 



Form No. 3. 

Royal Society op New South Wales. 
I, the undersigned, do hereby engage that I will endeavour to promote 
the interests and welfare of the Royal Society of New South Wales, and to 
observe its Rules and By-laws, as long as I shall remain a member thereof. 
Signed, 



D;:t. 



ado by l-Iuvjuo or Post Office order 



Form No. 5. 
Royal Society of Nirw South Wales. 

The Society's Room 



rheSodetVi Room 



On beliulf of the Royal So.-ioly ,,£ 






Form No. 7. 

ting List for the Election of the Officers and Council. 

KOYAL SOCIETT OF NEW SOCTII WALES. 



Balloting List for i 



' the Officers and Conn,. 



Present Council. | Na.es proposed as Menders of the new Counci.. 




Vice-Presidents. 








Hon. Treasurer. 








1 




Members of Council. 






1 


1 


' 



LIST OF THE MEMBERS 
%mi Stemig of leto goutlr Hales. 



.870 j Alio 






M.P., Speaker 
•-Chancellor, Un: 






Members are particularly requested to communicate any change 
of address to the Hon. Secretaries, for which purpose this slip is 
inserted. 



LIST OF THE MEMBERS 



Bartols, W. C. W., Union Club. 

Unssc-tt, W. ¥., M.R.C.S., E„ ff ., Batliurst. 

li.-"ir,-'nl._\V. J. ( ;.,' M Ji.r.s! A-,;// .'As tafl" Surgeon. 1P 

lirlsri.v.'. 'I'lioiiia-i '.15.. MO. /;.■//,,.. M.R.C.S.^H7., 153 Eliz: 



. \Vi!!i:mi. M.l.i'.. Kedi.Ml'. <,-m!:i If. il Ron I, 



187G ! ] Capo. Alfred J., Torfrida, Elizabeth Ba; 

is;,; . • • ' • ' ^ ;;-■ • 

1878 ChisholV. I*M w,n. M.D., M.K.C.S.. L.S. 



R,.v. Sof. 
:>, J,nu 1(5, 



Chine. Michael Joseph, M.A.I.ie. K. i Q. Coll. l'livs. Irel., 
\ Lie. K. Coll. Sur. /«/., 4, Hvde Park Terraee. 
( ,up .-, i .1 lm I-i k. Mli( - I-:.; Lie. R.C. Phys., L. ; 



1875 | ! De Sal 



ane, M.L.C., Cuppercumbalong, 



. Darling Poii: 



7 Herald Office. 

CM.. M.D., Q noon's Univ. Irel, 



)ub., Enfield 



1804 Hale, Thomas. Gresham-stivcl. 

1*7* Hall, Richard T., Seaton House, Crown-street, Surry Hills. 

1S7 I | llar.lv..!.. H.mter-streot. 

1877 | Hargrave. Lautvmv, 'Jl. ['pper William-street. 

1877 J Harrison. I.. M.. IMFs Chambers, Pitt-street. 



. Paris, 138, Castlereagh- 



•lVrra.v. Hv.lc 

Milford,S. F.F.. 

Millard. H.v. I Km 



876 Moi 

87G ! Mo: 



Ogilvv, James L., Oriental Bank, Sydney. 

Oil. v' Rev. Ja.-oh. Manly. 

O'Keilly, W. W. J., M.D., M.C., Q. Univ. Irel, M.I 

Owen, The Hon. Kobert, M.L.C., 88, Elizabetli-8tr< 



876 



Post Office, Cook's Biv 



. Guttior,';,, Lie. Soc. Apoth. Lond., 
. Mem. Boy. Soc. Vic, 
[.A. Cantab., Ferndal.% South Head Eoad. 



Selkirk, Win. Oil 
S.-lit.. N..n..an. C. K 
Sharp, Jiiim-9 Hurl. 



IS',2 Vo tSn.il 



Thorns. Wm. Smith, M.K.C.S., Sty., Wollongong. 



■liclnit.IJuv View Asylum, Cook' 3 



Honorary Members. 

Agnew, Dr., Hon. Secretary, Royal Society of Tasme 
Bablee, The Hon. F., late Colonial Secretary of Wes 
Beenats, Lewis A.,F.L.S., Vice-President of the Que 



Geegoby, Augu-i;.- Charles, t-'.RC.S., Surveyor Genei 

Brisbane. 
Haast, Dr. Julius von, Ph. D., F.R.S., F.G.S., Government Geologist and 

Director of the Canterbury Museum, New Zealand. 
Hector, James, C.M.G., M.D., F.E.S., Director of the Colonial Museum and 

Geological Survey of New Zealand, Wellington. 
M'Cot, Frederick, F.G.S., Hon. F.C.P.S., C.M.Z.S., Professor of Natural 

Science in (he Melbourne Universitv, Government Palaeontologist, and 

Director of the National Museum, Melbourne. 
Mulleb, Baron Ferdinand von, C.M.G., M.D., Ph. D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

Government Botanist, Melbourne. 



Cockle, His Honor Sir James, CI: 

Queensland. 
De Koninck, Prof., M.D., Liege, Belj 

Elected, 1 
Walker, Thomas, Yaralla, Concord. 



Obituary, 1878. 



1876. Benii,-! 

1850. Clarke, Rev. \V. B., 

1867. Lang, Rev. John Dui 



ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

CiraisTOriiER Rollestox, E>(>., Vice- President. 



IDflh-ern/ to the Royal Society of JS 



The absence el' our highly esteemed Senior Vice-President 
must be a subject of great regret to all of you, more particularly 
when it is known that his absence is not a matter of choice, but 
of necessity, forced upon him by failing health, and it is 
especially so to myself, upon whom devolves the duty of opening 



AVl.ilsi t 
workers am 
or naturalh 



geological formation of this country would fill volumes, and 
whose contributions to this Society have done so much to illus- 
trate the Natural History of Australia. 

for great original thinkers or investigators of the calibre of 

amongst us so accomplished a geologist as Mr. Clarke; and 
although it may be true that his unobtrusive labours in the 
field of science have not met with that public recognition to 



which, in the opinion of his friends and admirers, their impor- 
tance entitles them, T venture to suggest that this arises lather 
from the lack of scientific knowledge amongst us than from any 
lack of generous sympathy or appreciation of the services which 
he has rendered to the country. But however this may he, it 

know that his labours have met with flattering commendation 
from the most eminent men of science in Europe— that his name 
" has "been enrolled in the list of Members of some of the chief 
Scientific Societies of the Mother Country, and occupies a high 
place amongst the leading geologists of the day. I should parti- 
cularly mention the honor conferred upon Mi-. Clarke in the year 
187G, by the Royal Society of England, in his election to a 
Fellowship— first, for valuahle geological work in classifying the 
rocks of Xcw South Wales ; secondly, for services rendered in 
the discovery and development of gold-fields ; thirdly, for his 



published since 


1826, in the Journals of 


lie Cenl 


gical and 


Meteorological 




i. fonrth 


y, for the 


important part 


aken by him in the re-foui 




the Royal 


Society of New 


South Wales, and in the 


rmnotioi 


of scien- 


tific knowledge 


in the Colony. Here we 






Mr. Clarke's val 


able labours in the cause of 


science, a 


s set forth 


in the " Journal 


of the Royal Society of Eng 


and," wl 


,-h stamps 


him as a man of 


whom the Colony has reason 


to be pr, 


ud. 


The spread of 


a taste for scientific inquiry 


a one of 


he leading 


ohjects of our ^ 


oeiety. With this view th 


* differei 


t Sections 


hold their meet 


ngs, and with what degree 


of sueec 


s S may be 


gathered from t 


ic records of their pro.-eedii 


gs publi. 


bed in the 


Society's Journa 


1 for the past year. Doubtl 




s all of us, 


each in his own 






et, and to 


direct our effort 


■■ ! 




f practical 


rather than the 


..:.■: 


an roller 


facts will 



communicate them to | h 3o hie and interest 

to its proceedings ; and those who, like myself, have no special 
scientific knowledge will endeavour to combine those general 



AX>-IYEESAEY 



Iii order, tliei 


i, to 


keep 


alive an intern 


t in 


all the higher 


brandies of scie 


nee, we mi 


1st not allow to 


pass 


unheeded the 


great discoveries 


and 


expai 


Lsions of thoughl 


- whi 


•h characterize 


the age in whicl 


i we 


live, i 


md which in Europe 


as well as in 


America are tra^ 


-crsin 


g the realms of natur 


e at j 


greater depths 


than have hitherto b( 




umded, and con 


rimial 


ly stirring up 



to greater efforts the inquiring intellects o£ the master-minds 
of the present generation. In pursuance of this view. I propose 
to lay before you to-night a slight sketch of the progress of 
science during the past year, in those phases of it which will 
interest not scientific men only, but all who regard with general 
interest the investiirati.ms and disruvrrie- wldrli mark the stirring 



Foremost, I think, in point of interest is the Telephone of Pro- 
fessor Graham Bell, which may be claimed as a British invention. 
Mr. Bell, a native of Edinburgh, originated the idea whilst 
enaged in the work of teae' onb to speak, in 

Boston, United States. His researches lu-an with the produc- 
tion of musical sounds by means of electrical telephony. It is 
generally supposed that the dumb are mute because they arc 
deaf, and that when they know how to regulate the action of 
their vocal organs they can articulate with comparative facility. 
In his attempts to perfect his system of teaching it occurred to 
Mr. Bell that if, instead of presenting to the eye of his pupils a 
system of symbols, he could nuke risible t' e \ihrations of the 
air, a great step . .em to articulate. 

To this end Mr. Bell directed all Ids energies. Employing appa- 
ratus by which he had ben tory currents of 
electricity for the purpose of multiple telegraphy. Mr. EMI 
attached a rod loosely by one extremity to the uncovered pole of 
3. magnet, and fastened the other extremity to the centre of a 



corresponding motion, thereby occasion 


ing undulations in t 


electrical current that would correspond 


to the vibrations in t 


density of the air during the production 


of sound ; and furth 


that the change in the intensity of the e 


orient at the receivi 


end would cause the magnet there to 




copy the motion imparted to that at the 


.ending end. 


Mr. Bell's first experiments were nc 


t altogether suceeatf 


hut. persevering in his efforts, he at last 


produced a model whi 


consisted of a permanent magnet with 


i coil of wire round 


and an iron plate in front, which produc 


ed audible results. T 


vibration of the voice caused the vibratir 


n of the iron plate, tl 


vibration produced a current of electric 


ty, the current of ek 



of Sir William Thomson upon it :— " Mr. Alexander Graham Bell 
exhibits apparatus by which he has achieved a result of trans- 
cendent scientific interest — the transmission of spoken words by 
electric currents through a telegraph wire. To obtain this result, 
Mr. Bell perceived that he must produce a variation of strength 
of current in the telegraph wire as nearly as may be in exact 
proportion to the velocity of a particle of air moved by the 
sound, and he invented a method of doing so— a piece of iron 
attached to a membrane, and thus moved to and fro in the 
neighbourhood of an electric-magnet— which has proved perfectly 
successful. The battery and wire of this electro-magnet are in 
circuit with the telegraph wire and the wire of another electro- 
magnet at the receiving-station. This second electro-magnet has- 



AXXIVERSAKY 



a solid bar 


of ire 


m for core 


; which is 


connected at 


one ei 


ad by a 


thick disc c 


if iron 


to an iron 


tube suit 


ounding the 


coil a 


nd bar. 


The free circular end of the tube co 




• pole 


of the 


electro-mat 


jnet, a 


nd the adj; 


icent free 


end of the 


bar c< 


>re the 


other. A 1 


:hin eii 


•rul;ir iron 


disc, held 


pressed agai: 


QSt tin 


I end of 


the tube b; 


f the i 


■lec-tric-ma- 


n.etic attr 


action, and \ 


reeto 


vibrate 



sound. "With my ear pressed against this disc I heard it 
di>t iiK-tlv ;•. -veral sentences. * * * I need scarcely 
was astonished and delimited: so were others. incdiulim; 
judges of our group who witnessed the experiments and 

od with their own ears the electric transmission of speech. 
perhaps, t lie greatest marvel hitherto achieved by the 

■ic telegraph, has been obtained by appliances of quite 



perfectly astounding. AVc read of conce 

being carried on between Boston and New York, a distance of 
250 miles. The first practical application of the telephone is 
stated to have been made in May, 1S77, by the Water Board of 
Cambridge, in the State of Massachusetts, who established tele- 
phonic communication with the waterworks at Preshpond, in 
order to facilitate the sending of messages. Now more than 500 
houses in New England hold telephonic communication, and 
more than 3,000 telephones are said to be in operation in the 
United States. 



axxiykesaet addeess. 
n was introduced into England last year, 
cccivcd marked attention. Telephonic corn- 
been established between the mainland and 
Jersey. Several btuineM r ted with the 

private residences of their principals, whilst at the Prcscott 
Colliery, near Liverpool, remarkable success has attended some 
experiments made under the superintendence of Sir W. 
Thomson. In these experiments GOO yards of ordinary electric 
wire were used, the end in one instance being at the bottom of 
the pit, while the other end, to which the tubes or trumpet-like 
orifices, which resemble ordinary stethoscopes, were attached, 
were brought into the office of the Company, some distance from 
the pit's mouth. While one of the Government Colliery Inspec- 
tors and others went to the bottom of the pit, the majority of 

colliers at a distance from fcl disl inctly heard. 

The telephone was afterwards applied to test the ventilation of 

in the mine, that the overseer above ground could ascertain at 
once at what rate of current the air was running in the mine. 
It is hardly possible to conceive a greater benefit to colliers 
than this discovery entails. Sir William Thomson expressed his 
own amazement at the great improvement which the instrument 
had undergone since he tested it at Philadelphia, and stated that 
if such admirable results had been accomplished by the telephone 



assume he did r 
experiments at 



himself and other scientific friends. Mr. Preece conducted 

in connection with the Guild Hall, and in a ver/short time a 
verse of " God save the Queen," as played on a harmonium, was 
distinctly heard. A song, with chords, v. as afterwards played 
which was clearly heard by numbers of the audience sealed near 
this instrument. But Mr. Bell stated in reply to a question 
that the report that a concert had been heard in America by 
means of the telephone was not correct. AVe may not unreason- 
ably hope that our able Superintendent of Electric Telegraphs 



of infusoria— the 1 
method by which I 



The dillicultv of 



already expiring life, germs • 
minute thus accomplished win 



s and those of 
. concludes by 



lessor Tyndii 
neteenth Cenla, 
» who will take 



ing for the work, these gentlemen watched in turns through a 
powerful microscope the whole life and reproduction of a monad. 
The largest specimens examined by them were the one-thou- 
sandth of an inch when young, and four-thousandths of an inch 
when adult. The spores were so small that it required a magni- 
fying power of 5,000 diameters to see them as they began to 
grow. Among other points of interest, they observed that while 
it was possible for monads to live with a gradual change of 
temperature from 45° to 125% any sudden increase of heat was 
fatal ; and that, whilst adults could stand 140°, the spores could 
live for ten minutes in a temperature of 300°. 

In December last, Professor Stokes communicated to the KoyaL 
Society some of the latest investigations of the radiometer, and set 



AJfNIYERSARY ADDEESS. 

forth in his paper the many difficulties which surround the proble 



rotation when much liirht i: 
is little light. When the 
thought to he conclusively s 
a hitherto unknown mode of I 
light of a CM 
the light was passed 
"believed to stop all radiant heat, was put forward as a triumphant 
proof that an important discovery with regard to light had been 
made. A multitude of experiments were, however, soon brought 
to demonstrate that heat unaccompanied by light would pro- 
duce the same results. The theory of the mechanical action of 
light had therefore to be given up. and many and various experi- 



i bulb. 


I enclosing the ; 


rotating 


discs, 


,indow 


s of philosophic 


a] ingti 




bave 


noticed the grea 


fcer rapi 


My at 


thro* 


m upon them th 


an when there 


instru 


ment was first in 


vented 


it was 


down i 


hat the rotation 


. resulte 


d from 


f actio 


n of light. The 


• fact tl 


ia1 the 


le a ra 


.diometerto rot; 


Kte, evei 


i when 


)Ugh 


a solution of al 


am, wh 


ich is 



from radiation. 


- Mr. Ston 




ments to the 


Royal Society 




and subsequcn 


iiy Mr. Croo* 




same Society 


a form of rad 


iomel 


ordinary instru 


iment that he ] 


iropo 


" otheoscope." 


In the rad 


.iome 


discs of the fl 


y are bright ; 


md i 


heater is st at io 


nary, and the 


cook 


the glass bulb 


is an essential 


part 



of you may remember the 
to this port, and some of ; 



i had the pleasure of helming acquainted with Mr. 
eley, the naturalist, on board that ship. In the early 

;r on the colouring matter of various animals, especially of 
) sea forms, in which are mentioned some interest in l: Tacts 
rring to light in ocean depths. At a depth of 60 fathoms 
is been proved that light has no effect on sensitized paper, 
it is considered probable that at a depth of from 1,000 to 
fathoms solar light has no effect, At a depth of 450 and 490 
oms respectively, two blind decapod crustaceans were dredged 
'.n the "Challenger*' expedition; and other forms without 
eyes possessed by their shallow water congeners were found at 
cms depths. Other annuals, however, living in very deep water, 
3 found to have very large eyes ; hence it seems to Mr. Moseley 
to infer that some kind of light must exist. He mentions 



that all the deep 


-soa alcvonarians dredged up were highly 


phosphorescent, an 


d suggests that there are probably large areas 


peopled by these; 


bo that there may probably be illuminated 



The periodicity of Indian famines has been another sub- 
ject of importance which has engaged the attention of the 
learned in investigations of this nature. The question between 
these and the sun spot period has been discussed, but the theory 
has yet to be worked out to a practical conclusion. The theory 
is that the rainfall rises and falls as the sun spots increase or 
decrease, and that the minimum of the solar spots is the period 
of the maximum sun heat, which prevents the atmospheric water 
supply condensing into rain clouds. A trained observer has 
been sent out to India to arrange for the taking of daily photo- 
graphs of the sun, and we may know more by and by as to the 
merits of this problem. This is a question so full of interest to 
ourselves that I dare say our own able and indefatigable 



Astronomer may have had his attention <lircc 
and if so we may hope to be favoured with 
obsenatin:!;-: U'Fuiv li.e present session of 



able of the contributions offered towards the solution of the 
problem of the earth's distance from the sun, and the result of 



the nerves of jelly-fish, 



as that has been made in all 
the Mother Country, and I : 
local concern calling for notice i 
I should call attention to the 
mr own Sections towards th 



■ is inter 


osting inquiry 


e within 


i the limits of 


id brin» 


; under notice 


1 the d 


epartments of 


must r 


low return to 


at myl 


lands. In the 


e work 


that has been 


he pro* 


lotion of the 



scientific objects of the Society. It is both interesting and im- 
portant, covering as it does the fields of— 1. Astronomy i 
Physics ; 2. Chemistry and Mineralogy ; 3. Gee 
Palaeontology ; 4. Botany ; 5. Microscopical Science ; G. Geo- 
graphy and Ethnology; 7. Literature and Fine Arts; 8. Medical 

must refer you to the Journal of the Society. 

In addition to the interesting address delivered by your late 
Vice-President (Mr. H. C. Russell) at the opening of the session 

which will be found at length in the Jcurnal of the Society's 
proceedings. Of these papers perhaps the most noteworthy are 
those of Mr. Tcnison "Woods :— 1st. On " the Tertiary Deposits 
of Australia." 2nd. On "the pahcontological evidence of 
Australian Tertiary formation"; and 3rd. On " some Australian 
Tertiary Corals." And next to these, the two papers by the 
Rev. W. B. Clarke, on '• Dromorni* amtralis, a new fossil 



delivered at the Royal Institution last year on " the History of 
Birds," says that there is not one of the distinctive characteristics 
of birds as they now exist but has to be given up as a 
characteristic in looking at fossil forms. How true this may be 
of the fossil remains discovered in Australia further researches 
may be necessary to determine. He further says that the 
discoveries to which he alluded, if they did not indicate the 
actual gradation between birds and reptiles, did show the 



by the Honorary Secretary, dealing 
with all the details of tho Society'i 
•during the past year, relieves me 



these matters before you ; but I cannot help noticing 
the munificent gift of Mr. Thomas Walker towards the 
Building Fund of our contemplated new Homo. This instance of 
liberality on the part of a gentleman not bound to us by member- 
ship ought to animate us with givater zeai in the cause we have 
in hand, and instigate us to greater efforts to secure for the 
Society a permanent habitation. 

In his last address the Eev. W. B. Clarke laid great stress 
upon the obtaining of a Charter for the Society, and I may 
venture to say that the announcement that has been made 
to-night will afford to him in his sick room the pleasing prospect 
of a speedy accomplishment of his aspirations in that behalf. 
Whether the Home should precede the Charter or the Charter 
should precede the Home has been a moot point amongst us. 
We now see an early prospect of obtaining the one, and can have 
no difficulty, I apprehend, whenever we see fit to apply for it, in 
obtaining the other. But whilst the one and the other will give 
stability to the Society, we must never forget that, upon the 
individual efforts of its members to collect facts and to supply 
information in a manner to attract attention and to stimulate 
thought and discussion, rest the popularity, the usefulness, and 
the success of the Institution. 

And now gentlemen, before closing this address, I will ask you 
to favour me with your further attention for a few minutes, 
whilst I submit to your notice a very remarkable and interesting 
piece of information contributed by Mr. Henry Bessemer to the 
Times newspaper, in the month of January last. It is headed 
1 A Billion dissected." Few, if any of us, are I dare say aware 
of the vastness of the quantity expressed in that little word, and, 
as I have not seen the information reproduced in this Colony, I 
make no apology for appending it to my address, being assured 
that you wall not grudge the time occupied in listening to its 
very remarkable revelations. 

He says : " It would be curious to know how many of your 
readers have brought fully home to their i 



1-1 AXXIVEESA.ET ADDEE3S. 

real significance of that little word ' billion ' 
of late so glibly used in your columns. Tl 
intellects that can fairly grasp it and digesl 
there are, doubtless, many thousands who c 
true worth even when reduced to fragm 



and carry myself in thought through the lapse of ages back to 
the first day of the year 1 of our era, remembering that in all 
those years we have 305 days, and in every day just SG,400 



extended our imaginary street to the distance of 2,380 i- miles 
that we shall have presented for inspection our one billion < 



" Or in lieu of this arran them flat upon 

the ground, forming one continuous line like a long golden 
chain, with every link in close contact. But to do this we must 
pass over land and sea, mountain an.! valley, desert and plain, 
crossing the Equator, and reluming around the southern hemi- 
sphere through the trackless ocean, retrace our way again across 
the Equator, then still on and on, until we again arrive at our 
starting point ; and when we have thus passed a golden chain 
around the huge hulk of the earth we .shall he hut at the 
beginning of our task. AVe must drag this imaginary chain 
no less than 763 times round the globe. If we can further 
imagine all these rows of links laid closely side by side and every 



there would be a residue of A47 tons representing 61,0SL920 

lines are printed, if laid ilal and tirmh pressed together in a 
well-bound book, would represent a measure of about l-333rd 
of an inch in thickness. Let us see how high a dense pile formed 
by a billion of these thin paper leaves would reach. We must, 
in imagination, pile them vertically upward, by degrees reaching 
to the height of our tallest spires ; and passing these, the pile must 
grow higher, topping the Alps and Andes and the highest peaks 
of the Himalayas, and shooting up from thence through the fleecy 
clouds, pass beyond the confines of our attenuated atmosphere, 
and leap up into the blue ether with which the universe is filled, 
standing proudly up far beyond the reach of all terrestrial things ; 
still pile on your thousands and millions of thin leaves, for we 
are only beginning to rear the mighty mass. Add millions on 



16 A>TfIVEBSAEY ADDEESS. 

millions of sheets, and thousands of miles on these, and still the 
nurnher will lack its due amount. Let us pause to look at the 
neat ploughed edges of the book before us. See how closely lie 
those thin flakes of paper, how many there are in the mere width 
of a spau, and then turn our eyes in imagination upwards to our 
mighty column of accumulated sheets. It now contains its 
appointed number, and our one billion of sheets of the Times 
superimposed upon each other and pressed into a compact mass 
has reached an altitude of 47,348 miles. 

"Those who have taken the trouble to follow me thus far will, 
I think, agree with me that a billion is a fearful thing, and 
that few can appreciate its real value. As for trillions and 
quadrillions, they are simply words, mere words, wholly incapable 
of impressing themselves on the human intellect." 

I think you will all agree with me that the moral conveyed in 
this communication is not the least interesting nor yet the least 
instructive feature in it. 






Tasmanian Forests : their Botany and Economical 
Value. 

By Rev. Julian E. Tekisox-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S., 

Hon. Mem. Roy. Soc. KS.W, Victoria, Tasmania, Adelaide 

Philosophical Soc, &c., &c. 

[Head before the Royal Society of X.S.W., 5 June, 1878.] 

Is February, 1R7-1. I visited Tasmania for a missionary tour 

throughout the islaii'l.. r a7id for nearly three years traversed its 
various districts. I had thus an opportunity of becoming 



cquainted with all 1 



5 resided 

for weeks together in some localities, and on the south coast made 
frequent journeys on foot amount the splitters and fishermen 
on that part of the island. These journeys gave me leisure 
for observation, and I was able in some small degree to increase 
the knowledge of Tasmanian natural history. Many of the 
notes made have been published, and Bome I hope still to 
place in an available shape before the public. Some are of a 
strictly technical character, but some have a more simple and 
popular aspect. Such, for Instance, are the notes made upon the 
forests and timber resources, and I venture to think it may be 
worthy of a place in the Royal Society's proceedings if I bring 
before" them what I haw born able to note on this subject. It is 
well known that Tasmania has in its timber one of its very great 

these are cannot fail' to be of service to the public. 
Tasmania may be said generally to be a thickly 



between the main ranges and the sea, the soil is usually cL 



• ', d 



generally 
country. With the exception of the table-lands and the slo] 

B !ov 

11 in 

:the 

t modern (Tertiary) basaltic 



of the highest mo 
r particular s 



either are they coniined to any particular height above 
level. The fine timber near the Mill-house Falls grows 
i 1,000 feet and more above the sea, while the forests on 



of the Huon and Kermi 
the beach. The aspects of these 
quite different from the i 



of the island. The vegetation is dense and almost tropical in 
character. The vets are the tall and taper- 

ing blue gum trees, b> whi< i name' I shall luavs refer subse- 
quently to the Eucalyptus globulus. They grow so close together 
as quite to si i u: <■ t and wand-like 

that the slim lines of bark look like fine ornamental graining. 
They are of immense height; 200 feet without a branch 
is not at all uncommon, and there are very many trees ranging 
from 300 to 400 feet high. Long bands of bark hang down from 
their sides and across their branches, and these when set in 
motion by the wind keep up a cim-taut raitle and creaking, 
filling the gloomy forest with the strangest echoes and sounds. 
The great height of the trees would never he imagined from the 
aspect the} pn-cnt A- ihev alv.u- gn, \ on \er\ steep slopes 
and never crown the summit of the rid gea, their height ia lost 
against the adjacent ranges. It is only when standing at the foot 

around from the buttress-like base, twisting and turning round 



ally what is called 
rood (Olearia argopl 
■enelarliomloidvd). 1 



elliptica), stinkwood (Zirra 



o be absolutely no difference 
of the Dividing Range in 
Jpper Yarra and along the 

if the vegetation is certainly 
un-ini folia. Aster .stellulatul; 
eilfordia salicina moot 
ieed, almost exclude 
owtli, the long narrow stems of the Poma- 
. impenetrable thickets on the Black Spur, 
though identical in aspect and graceful 
c species. JE. amyrjdttlina* taking the place 






Lepiospernum lanifjrra. JJncir.-nu hitifolia, J), ulicina, IlaJcea 
pugioniformis, Gleichenia dicarpa, G. jlnbellata, and a few others. 
Before I pass on to the consideration of the timber products 
I may say a word here as to what I regard as the cause of the 
singular height and straightness of the Eucalypti in these forests. 
This is a peculiarity almost restricted to Tasmania and Victoria. 
The trees grow to a great height in the forests of New South 
Wales, hut nothing like the altitude thev attain in the other 
Colonies. In this respect the greatest height seems to be 
reached in Victoria. Trees have been felled which measured 
over 460 feet, and it is common to see them in both Colonies 
rising 200 feet and more, as Btnught as an arn.w, before sending 
forth a branch. Now, in what wav are we to account for this r 1 
First of all it must he obsened that we never sec this kind of 

subsoil is probably several f'u : ot'a'l umu .' ■> ,p-ul of decayed 
wood and leaves. As soon as the seeds of the gum tree germinate 
they shoot up with extraordinary rapidity. Young s 



constantlv 


SCC1 




to 30 fe 






nd the stem not 2 








the L.TOU 




It the to 


p ther 


e are only a 










i-gy 




me of them 












-ears old 


because they have 






ihe 


that was 


[uite 


recently 


felled. 


I consider 


that t!,n, 


;?" 


ses 


combine t 




U.v this 


rapid 


and straight 



of Eucalypti, with few 



f seen on the more exposed summits. 
t the base are very lofty, though not 
ualling those of the Black Spur ; 
ic summit the timber 
stunted and ragged, and those lofty trees on the slope which send 
these branches thus far partake of' the knotted twisted character, 
and have them all very singularly bent towards the mountain 
by the prevailing direction of the w T inds to which they are 






nportant Eacl \iews as to the 

growth of the Eucalyptus are correct. There are plenty of deep 
shady gullies in the mountains of Europe where the experiment 
might be tried. In Norway and in Bome of the valleys of the 
Alps favourable places might very easily be found. I am convinced 
that the trees are of very rapid growth, and even the largest are 
not of great age. Cold does not affect them. In many of the 
gullies of Tasmania the snow lies around the trees for six months 

sometimes exposed to a verv hiirh temperature. The acclimatiza- 
tion, therefore, ought not to be a matter of great difficulty, 
neither would much time be required for the experiment. 
Baron von Mueller assures us in his "Select Plants" that the 
Eucalypt is much more hardy than the orange or lemon tree. 

It is a very interesting inquiry to know how old are the 
stately trees which people these forests. Judging from their 
size, one would be inclined to attribute to them great antiquity. 
I was very anxious to collect data on the subject ; but to 
nearly all my in; I mere guesses; from 200 

to 300 years was the general reply. I found, however, in Mr. 

;ion at <■■ sable. Mr. 

of an extensive sawmill at Honey wood, 



viceable timber 


-i-i.inp. 


recently he has 


bad a x 


these observati 








cleared for the 




years this suran 


cr - LS7 



the l\e" mania 



takes precautions a-aiust them, am] keeps a earel'ul watch, they 
may not only be painful but dangerous in their attacks. A 



block out of the si 



gum-tree is cut down, and its stem 
brushwood, thus leading 300 or 400 
. le Eeet above it ; from tlii 
either by cutting fresh trees, or by 
either as flights of steps or pathwa' 
will he pc-nctraiedforhalfamile, a", 

beauty. Dull green is the light, ai 
quiet is disturbed by nothing hut 1 
far overhead, the soiind of some wo 
cry of the wattle hmKAn/in.clnrra 

carpeted with bright given ui"ss. 
spring up all around, ami the bro 
Mi ir>/mrj)op//i/lh/,;i and 
palin-like fronds,' shut in* the view c 
seclusion lovely beyond description, 
dripping with moisture, so that the 
said to be always wet through. Th 
bundles of fifty, fastened round wit' 
tight and compact as if the whole 1 
done by tying up a bundle of some 
and then wedging in the remaind 



shingles will weigh from 50 to 00 lbs, vet 1 h; 


re seen young 






on their shoulders. They divide the labour bets 








splitting and felling and two for " carrying out.' 




rests or "spells," as thev are called, every furl 




small stage of paling abJut three feet from tin 
bundle of shingle has a long peg driven into the 






bundles are held together by a cross strap of bark. 


The •"■carrier' 


stoops with her back towards the bundle, raises 
her head, and by means of the two pegs tilts th 




■"load on 'to he 


shoulder and staggers along to the first " sp 




burden is slid down on the stage for awhile. 


"it is certainly 


a most unfeminine occupation, and still less i 
comparative children. The splitters are ver\ 


it adapted tc 


often utterly 



goods; and though the disadvantages 



system almost unavoidable. 

The larger timber which is useful for heavier purposes than 

shingle*, is treated in :i different way. The trees, when they are 
felled, are cut into lengths of in. 12. and 11 feet, according to 
the nature of the " stuff."' as it is called. The huge round logs 
thus resulting are rolled down to the edge of the tramway, or 
drawn by bullocks on a kind of wheeled sleigh. It is thus 
brought to the sawmill, where it is speedily cut up into M sawn 
stuff." The thickness and length of course depend upon the 
kind of timber required. At the time of the gold fever (lSo2-3-i), 
when the timber trade of the Huon reached a prosperity which 
has never been seen before or since, the demand was enormous. 
But it could not be cut too light; the thinnest shingles, studs, 
palings, and battens were sure to meet the readiest sale. The 
' . • ,ltv of carriage, 

explain this peculiarity. At ilie present tin- trade is very fluc- 
tuating, and the supply probably in excess of the demand. The 
favourite timber used for sawing is stringy-bark (Eucalyptus 
obliqua) and blue-gum I S The former is 

most in use— first of all because it is more abundant, but pro- 

they say here, to work. It is preferred for all kinds of carpentry 
where more strength is required than pine could furnish. But 
there is a second species of siringv-bark winch is called here 
" gum-topped stringy -bark." I have'verv little doubt that this is 
Eucalyptus rlrynta, of Siebold. The Rev. 'W. W. Spicer has 
made known its existence in Tasmania, which was not hitherto 
recorded. It is the "mountain ash" of ISew South Wales 
splitters, and occurs in the south-eastern part of this Colony and 
in Victoria. In South Australia it is a mere twiggy bush 15 
to 20 feet high. It is exactly like stringy -bark in the fibrous 
twisted bark^ but it is very much more like the blue gum in the 
leaf. I never examined the seed-vessels or flowers. The wood 
is lighter in colour than E . hich goes by the 

name of brown stringy-bark. The '-gum-top" is close-grained, 
and very few are able to distinguish the timber from blue gum. 
It is much used for shipbuilding purposes. 

But for all work where length, strength, and durability are 
required Eu>-,-: !ue gum, is most in demand, 

It is generallv procured bv hand sawvers, who cut up the trees 
where they fall in the forest. Its uses are very various. It is 
in demand for br pen, coach and wheelwright 

work ; but to shipbuilders it is invaluable. It makes the very- 
best planking for ships' bottoms. It has the property of swell- 
ing under water to such an extent that it becomes a matter of 



are both worthless and soon decay. The irno serviceable blue 
gum must come from the m re urn i'e're nee of the tree, about mid- 
way between the bark and centre. 

main^ourel-sofsuiVl: "l "''' , ' u' d I i . \w> ( Danydium 

scarce; it is only found in a few remote spots far in the moun- 
tain ranges. The sources of the Pieton are now the principal 
localities whence tins timber is derived. A no; her tree, much used 
for spars, is the celery-topped pine (P/,,,1larlad>i* rhomhoidalis*) ; 

argophylla), dogwood (lied for did salicina) are used for orna- 
mental purposes with lightwood, or blackwood, for it gOM by 

other trees. 

The blackwood (Acacia mrlanoxylon) is lar-elv used for oil- 
know, that is suitable for the purpose. The tree, on -rood soil 

stem several feet in diameter. It is split into 

inches thick and 6 feet lone;, and then shipped from the Tamar 

to Victoria. The wood is also considered most valuable for 

(for sounding boards and actions) and numerous other purposes. 
Silver wattle (Acacia J,r»r,;>, ) is also much used Cor staves, 
from 20 inches to 5 feet long; it is shipped in quantity 
to Victoria, and used for beef and water casks. Trees from 
12 to 24 inches in diameter are the usual sizes worked; 
but they become daily scarcer, from the fact that they 
are annually destroyed in hundreds of thousands for ihe sake of 
the valuable bark. The bark and gum of this tree are becoming 
highly esteemed because of the manv dyeing purposes for 
which it is found they are almost unequalled". Voting trees are 



splendid i 

backings 
regretted 



[uon dis- 
All of 



trees. If young trees were allowed to grow up to supply those 
which have been felled, the supply might be considered inex- 
haustible. But this is not the case. If the ground has been at 



all well cleared by the splitter or sawyer it is seized upon by the 
settler, wbo grubs the stumps and destroys the saplings, planting 
in pl.!> i-'-j takes, and those fruits which, 

next to timber, form the principal export of the Huon. 

Yet, in spite of all these drawbacks, there is still a consider- 
able supply of timber in the forests which can hardly be ever 
selected, as the scrub is too dense. I am informed that, judging 
from the area of land worked over in the Huon district for the 
last thirty years, there is beyond a doubt a supply for fifty years 
at the same rate of production. 

The only way to prevent the wholesale destruction of the 
timber will be by proclaiming reserves or State forests, as they 
have done in Victoria. This is what the saw vers and splitters 
are crying out for, but as yet without effect. - I do not under- 
take to pronounce an opinion on a question which may have 
political difficulties unappreciablc by me ; but it does seem a 
mistaken liberty to allow selectors to settle on land of great 
value as a timber forest but useless for agriculture, until the 
whole of the valuable timber is ruthlessly destroyed. It seems 
to me that as long as anv available land can be obtained 
free from timber, or with 'timber of little value upon it, no 
selector should be allowed to destroy the forests. The matter is 
one which the Legislature should 'deal with promptly, or the 
forests of Tasmania, peerless and priceless as they once were, 
will soon be things of the past. 



, [ n Lui,'.'; 


us. The time 




r. Dredging 




. so t;.<ai the 




i..-.M«.I 1 USr;in 




New South 




. but still far 



The Molluscan Fauna of Tasmania. 



I September, 1878.] 



the nature of that fauna i 

has hardly come when this can be done 

operations have not been carried out to 

Fauna of Australia is also only very parti; 

"Wales or the east coast is perhaps the be 

from completely ; and as for South Australia and Victoria, our 

knowledge is extremely imperfect. It will be seen, therefore, 

that I can only give broad and very general conclusions, such as 

I think future discoveries will not materially alter. 

In order to understand flic- fauna ut' Tasmania we must bear 
in mind first of all the physical character of the island. It is 
separated from Australia by a wide and deep strait, 00 miles at 
least at its narrowest part, though that interval is to some extent 
bridged over by groups and chains of large islands. It is situated 
in more tempi- - part of Australia, and on 

its southern side it is exposed to the full force of the southern 
ocean, as well as to the influence of much colder seas. The coast 
is almost without exception bold, precipitous, and rocky, with 
many islands. There are numerous inlets and bays running up 
very far into the land and perfectly sheltered, so that tranquil 
and shallow waters are by no means wanting. The sea, though 
not a warm one, appears to be very equal in temperature. It is 
fed by numerous freshwater streams, and there are many brackish 
estuaries. In these parti ts verv strongly 

with the south coast of Australia. The sea there is warmer, 
and the coasts are seldom bold. There are immense stretches of 
sandy beach of nearly 100 miles at a time. There are few rivers, 
and instead of estuaries there are many shallow arms of the sea 
or brackish water lakes. The south-east coast of A ustralia differs 
to some extent from this, resembling Tasmania more. The 
shore is often bold and much more broken ; there are scarcely 
any islands, and the seas are exposed to the full influence of the 
southern ocean. 



First of all, 
our knowledge 

derived. The! 

Banks and Sola 



Gray in the Zooh 
and this must have 
the British Musen 



Iturnphli (1705). |[<. 



my other locality. It is stai 


;am Hutton assures me that 




are needed to clear up th 




pellucid transversely subst: 



Of Xature. Lon 
other identifieati 
the earlier works 


don: lSUi;. 


: 1 r s ;.,:;:;:;r ! :,' 


; \:r ' s; 


by another:' ami 
part, it does seem 
burden our scier 
history. They ar 
purpose whatever 


e doubtful 



found m 



32 THE ilOLLrSCAN FAUNA OF TASMANIA. 

introduced and was known to Linne only from European forms. 
It has been brought in timber from Europe, and a more unwel- 
come c-.M' of Luvliiiiaiization we can hardly imagine. 

After Linne we have very few names or descriptions anterior 
to those of Lamarck, who published the first edition of hk 
mstoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertebres in 1815-23. 
During the period intervening between Lamarck and the dis- 
coveries of Capt. Cook in 1770. we have only the following 
names: — Argonauta oryzata, Meuschen; Triton spengleri, Dillwyn. 
Both these were not from Australian specimens, as the species 
have a wide range. Seliotis ncevosa, Martyn ; Purpura succincta, 
Martyn; Bisella melanostoma (or Trochus), Gmelin; Phasianella 
tritonis, Chemnitz; TrochococMea Australis, Eavanne; Patella 
tromoserica, Martyn ; Patella radians, Gmelin ; Cyprea angustata, 
Gmelin; C. comptoni, Gmelin;* Turbo undulatus, Chemnitz; Turbo 
stramineus, Martyn. 

Before I make any observations on these, it may be necessary 
to say something about the authors and the various works where 
their descriptions are to be found. 

The dawn of a true science of conchology may be said to date 
from the books of our countryman, Lister, who in 1685 com- 
menced the publication of his great work entitled, Historia sire 
Synopsis Methodica ConcJiyliorum. It was in four books: 1, of 
land univalves; 2, of freshwater univalves and bivalves; 3, of 
marine bivalves and I'alanida- (< 'onchis nnu/ifrris); 4, of marine 
Patellae, Dentaliums and Buccinums, 1 have 1 ranslated the title 
of the divisions of this really marvellous work — marvellous for 
the age, whether one regards the genius of the author or the 
accuracy of the figures. These were 1,057 in number; but, the 
plates being bequeathed to the University of Oxford, another 
edition of them was published in 177<»; where the figures 
of shells alone (exclusive of fossils) amount to 1,153— all 
executed with rare industry by Dr. Lister's daughters, Sus- 
sanah and Anne Lister. I gladly avail myself of the 
opportunity of helping to make known their "names. The 

Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. Without mentioning any of 



include— Patella, H ■ >,, D >- ini) > \Vrrit . IMix, Trochus, 
Strombus, Nautilus, Conus, Cyprea, Ostrea, Venus, Chama, Pholas, 

,S_ '• ;-:_.' .■■'■■•-■ ,,: 

* On the testimony of Dr. J. E. Gray. 



Fred, Ren 


is. and Mus, 


um Ludovicte 


llrirj 7,',,,-w 


% all contri- 




extend his s^ 


srstem, and do 


ubtless to enki 


rge his own 




of the subject. In the las 


st-named work 




434 speck 


is of shells. 






, though the 




published in 


irr.t— that i 


s after the ter 


' 






es his old divie 


ions of Conchee 


and Cochlea. 


\\:< M..-U. 




lother additioi 


i) embraces th 









There was the 1 


rench expedition und 


in the ships "Ma 






dement at Port .Ta 


perfect stream o 


f specimen ufnatur: 


into Europe. T 




1791, Cox in Ta 




casteaux, with 




Then came Flii 


ders, Bass, Grant, 


under Baudin v 


•ith the naturalists 


doubt the latte 


r contributed largeh 


but until then, i 


rom the time of Lin 


already iriven : 


Argonauta oryzata 


both have come 


from the Indian Oce 


authority for the first, is only known 


brated collectior 


b, viz. :— 1. Of Laur 


of Leyden (pul 


lished in 1781), and 


G-evers of Eott 




(p. 252, n. 13:0 
these Dutch co 




Ocean and Spic 








" A Descriptive 




the Linnean m 


thoJ \cith particular 



* This work of Mei 
ttCMWtnH in a pari.,' 



work of modern 



through Mr. 
olonists. Had 



36 THE MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF TASMANIA. 

the pursuit of shell-collecting any really scientific pretensions at 
that time we should have had little to glean ; but size and colour 
were more regarded then, so that the smaller shells or the unat- 
tractive shells were left for the scientific gleaners. 

In the list I have given of the shells with pre-Lamarckian 
names there are none which may not have come from Australia, as 
they are equally common there, and two, as we have seen, extend 
to the Indian Ocean. One, Patella radians, G-melin, cannot be 
made out at all, unless I am right in supposing that it is one of 
the many varieties of Quoy's Acmaea sept if or mis. (Patelloidea s. 

Having stated what I think important in reference to those 
books in which the older names of Tasmanian shells are to be 
found, I proceed to give a list of all the books in which any part 
of the same fauna is described. I have marked witli an asterisk 
those works which I have not been able to consult, and shall 
merely name the works already referred to, marking them thus t- 

First enumerating the serials, we have : — 

1. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London — 

generally. The earlier numbers containing the mono- 
graphs of Hinds, Reeve, Adams, and the later (from 
18G5) the lists of Australian fauna of Angas. 

2. Annals of Natural History generally. 

3. Proceedings of the Linnjean Societt of London — 

the earlier transactions. 

4. The Zoological Journal. 5 vols., 8vo., with supple- 

mentary coloured plates. London, 1825-35. 

5. Proceedings of the Eoyal Society of N. S. Wales 

from 1866. 

6. Proceedings of the Eoyal Society of Victoria from 

1857. 

7. Proceedings of the Eoyal Socety of Tasmania, 

years 186 1 papers by W. Swainson. 

Tears 1875-76-77-78, papers on conchology from myself 
and various authors. 

8. Proceedings of Boston Natural History Society, 

containining all Dr. A. A. Gould's papers, descriptions 
of Australian shells in nearly every volume. 

9. Journal de Conchylioligie, from 1860 to date, con- 

taining all the diagnoses of Crosse and Fischer's new 
Australian shells, and numerous monographs and lists 
of our fauna. 

10. British Museum Catalogues. All the conchological 

ones contain Australian materials, notably the elaborate 
diagnoses of Deshayes. 



UNA OF TASMANIA. 37 

lit. Linne. The tenth edition is the first which contains 
any details about conchology. The other works have 
been referred to already. 

12f. Martini and Citemnitz, ut sup. 

13f. Martyn's Universal Conchology, &c. 

14f. Humphrey. Museum Colon., ut supra. I have only 
seen Swainson's reproduction of his system. 

15*f. Meuschen, ut supra. 

16*f. Dillwtnn's Catalogue. 

17. The Malacological and Conchological Magazine. 
By Ct. B. Sowerby, Parts I & II, London, 183S-9. 

18. Species CoNciiYLTora-tf. or concise original descriptions 
and observations of all the species of recent shells, with 
their varieties. I'art T containing a monograph of the 
genus Cymba, by W. J. Broderip. and monographs of 
the genera Aneffla tore, by Cr. B. 
Sowerby. 4to, II col. plates. London, 1830. 

19*. A catalogue of the shells contained in the collection of 
the late Earl of Tankerville, arranged according to the 
Lamarckian Conchological System; with an appendix: 
containing the descriptions ,,)' manv new sp< cies. Small 
4to. 9 col. plates. London, 1S25." By Cr. B. Sowerby. 

20. Thesaurus <\>n-<-ii\ i.iukim. or figures and descriptions 
of shells. By Gr. B. Sowerby, jun., London. Begun in 
1812, and continued for some years. I have onlv seen 
three volumes, and believe that the work was not 



22. Conchological Illustrations, or coloured figures of 
all the hitherto unfigured recent shells. Containing 
monographs of Cardium. Chiton. Bid nus. Murrx. Can- 
cellaria, Qtmut, Ni . l,&C 2 vols., 
12mo., 158 coloured plates. London, 1S32-41. The 
figures excellent, but the letter-press very bad, and the 
arrangement confused. 

23. The Genera of Recent and Fosstl Shells. 2 vols. 

Svo., 266 col. plates. By James Sowerby. London, 
1820-24. 

24. Swainson's Treatise on Shells and Sitft t.-fisu. 
London, Longmans, 1840. 12mo. "Woodcuts only, but 
good figures. A rather fanciful work, but some of the 
genera have been adopted, and full justice has hardlv been 
done to it. It is one of Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia. 



By W. 

20". Al'LMCN 



29. Critical List or Mathm-: Mou.r 
By Dr. E. von Martins, N.Z.. 187 

30. Addenda and Corrections to same. 

31. *Bor<>- (Ignatius, Baron) Test, 

i; f ,M-; is. ,.\ r : 



subsequent to the eariiiT niuiiou 
necessarily very incomplete for t 
unless a supplement should be j 

35. ICONOOKAPHIE DES COQl'IIiLES 

Kiener. Paris. 4to. A series 
similar io Eeeve's. I have only 
but in those the figures, A:r.. sec 



39. Y.>v\nlofII.M.S."Sam 



w species, which 
ust be consulted 



i. I.v .1. 1". lirav.ofthe British 

nmtams many descriptions of 

lich, however, are rather too brief. It 



42. Dieffenbacii's New Zealand. 2 vols., Svo. London, 
1843. The appendix to this work is also by Gray, and 
contains very many new species. 

43. Tate's New Zealand. Appendix by Gray, with many 

new species. In this and the preceding work the 
diagnoses are far too brief. 1 vol. Svo. London, 1885. 
44.f Lamarck, ut supra. 

45. Menke Molluscorum Novje Holland ije specimen. 
Hanover, 1843. 4to. A very thin tract in Latin which 
contains full diagnoses of a large number of Australian 
species, the most of which, however, were from the south- 
western part of the continent. A few Tasmanians are 
to be found amongst them. The work is very rare; I 
have never seen but two copies in Australia. There 
are none in any of our public libraries. It would be a 
very small expense, but a great boon to reprint it. 

46. Wood's General Coxchologt. London, 1815, with 

59 coloured plates, Svo. 

47. "Wood's Index Testaceolooicus, or a catalogue of 

shells, British and foreign, arranged according to the 
Linnean system. Svo. . 2nd edition. 2.3i .io«-« .loured figures. 
London, 1828. Supplement with 480 coloured figures. 
This work, though the figures are all of one size and 
small, yet are tolerably executed. The arrangement is 
very confusing ; but still, 1 may safely say it is indis- 
pensable to any person collecting, and is a very con- 
venient handbook of species. 

48. Genera of Mollusca, by A. & H. Adams. 3 vols., 
small 8vo., with 138 plates. London, 1858. This ia 
certainly one of the most valuable books on the subject ; 
but, according to the opinion of many, much marred by 
the revival of many useless genera, and by the substi- 
tution on the most slender claims, of the forgotten 
names of Humphrey, Bolten, Montague, &c 
well-known ones of Lamarck. I shall refer U 
ject again in this essay. 

49. Woodward's Manual op tite Mollusca. being a 

treatise on Becent and Fossil Shells. 3rd edition. w ith 
an appendix of recent and fossil conchological dis- 
coveries, by Balph Tate, pp. xiv, 512, S<> : 23 plates 
and many woodcuts, Svo. London. The appendix 
treats of those recent and fossil shells not mentioned in 
edition 2. It contains, therefore, descriptions of all the 
genera founded since 18G6. It is separately paged, and 
illustrated by 27 woodcuts. !N r o commendation is needed 
for this most excellent manual. There is no other book 






THE MOLLUSCAN F 

in any language like it for cheapness and high scientific 
character. It has done more to popularize conchology 
than any other book in the range of the subject. Pro- 
fessor Tate's additions are very valuable. 
50. Mantel de Conchyliologie etde Paleontologie conchy- 
liologique, par le Dr. J. E. Chenu. 2 vols., large 8vo. 
Paris, 1859. This work is illustrated by very nearly 
5,000 exquisite wood engravings. It is much more 
costly than "Woodward, 



ery large number of Australian species i 
ith its aid one ought to be able to arran 



figur, 

and name the most of the species in any collection. 

51. A Monograph of Australian Land Shells, by .lames 

C. Cox, M.D., 8vo., Sydney, 1868, with 18 coloured 
plates, containing over 400 figures. This work, I need 
hardly say, is perfect of its kind, and reflects the highest 
credit upon the author. It is truly an astonishing 
production for a young Colony. 

52. Cox's Exchange List of Australian Shells, Sydney. 
Names only. Dr. Cox very properly did not undertake 
the question of synonomy or genera, but merely ^ave a 
list of such species as he had recognized. 

53. A Monograph op the Land Shells of Tasmania, 1 
vol., 8vo., Tasmania, 1873. By W. Legrand. A smaller 
work than that of Dr. Cox, but nearly equal to it in 
finish and completeness. 

51.* Favanne de Monterville, pere et fils. 3 vols., 4to., 

Paris, 17S0. This is an augmentation of D'Argenville, 

vide supra. 
55.* Koch in Abbildungen und Besehreibungen neuer oder 

wenig gekannter Conchylien. 3 vols., 4 to., col. plates. 

B. A. Philippi. Cassel, 1842-50. 

56. Pfeiffer Monographia IIelicorum Viventium. 2 
vols., Svo. Leipzig, 1848. 

57. Jonas Zeitschrift. fur. Malac., &c. The German 
Journal of Conchology, in which many Australian 
species are described. 

58. C. F. Schumacher. Essai d'un nouveau systemc des 
habitations des vers testaees. Copenhagen, 1817. 4to., 
plates. I only know of one copy of this scarce work in 
these Colonies, which is in the library of the Eoyal 
Society of Tasmania. 

59.* H. C." Kuster. This is a new edition of Martini and 
Chemnitz, published in Nuremberg from 1837, and for 
many years subsequently. Many new Australian shells 
are described. 



60. 


Desiiayes 


Histoe 


;k Xri 


'. des animaux 


sans vertebres. 




This is a 


. second 


editio 


in of Lamarc] 


i from 1835-45, 




in 11 vols 










assisted. 






anian shells are 




described 


in it, bul 


; the di 






Gl. 


Desuayes 


Traite 


Elemi 




OXCHYLIOLOGIE. 




Svo, s pi. 




ls:]s. 








The Ynr: 


rc> Coxa 






Species. Uni- 






mo, will 




e. London, 1810. I 




i Ian ley. " 
























Shells. B 








London, 1844. 


64. 


Coopee in 


^la-azii 


.c of !. 


iritish Zooln-v 


, vol. 2. 


65. 


Bl.UXVILI 


a: in Bul 




es Sciences X; 


iturellcs. Feb., 




1S17. 










66. 


BlAINTILI 


a. Ma: 


OJEL D 


E Malacologi 


:e et de Conchy- 




liolo-ic. 




■phl^Rui* 




67. 


Ed. Do>-o 


vxs. Ti 


IK Xvi 




POSITOBT, VOL 3, 



Geologic Pf 


iris, 4to, ^ 


A. Adams and 
of the "Beagle 
costata = Acmo 
find any such 


Anitas ivtei 
."'Wades 


Jay's Catalogue of Sh 
This contains a very exl 
New Zealand species. 


though not e 





bibliography, 
ilogue of the 



the library catalogue 



It remains to si at ct u mi tV «!ate „f flu census published 
in last year's Proceeding; i«t th. IW.,1 S„,-irn of Tasmania, 
nothing w haieft rda a classification of the 

mollusca of those seai. i 

thing has been doi ■ m dlusca of 

any part of Austr„i: : .. Ti,.- fr>: -' T,^,,.. » , \T r \,:gas, u ho, in 
1865, published a very complete list of the shells of South 



3/ytihi.i ~D »:„/■. 



41 THE MOLLTJSCAN FAUNA OF TASMANIA. 

liirsutus, Lamarck ; Venus | I Oardita amahilis, 

Deshayes' Lamar- a, Keeve ; Haliotis albicans r 

Sw. ; Littornia vili.-: Keeve (which is a young and dwarfed 
species olL.pyramidaUs, Quoy) ; Kraussia lamarckiania, Davidson. 

On the other hand, some of the missing shells of the former 
list are chronicled as occurring in New Zealand, which is the 
true hahitat of the following Chiton sim-luri, Chiton glaums 
Gorbula zelandica, Mytilus dunkcri. 

I must now refer to another matter, that is, the names of the 
genera. Mr. G. F. Angas, in his list, lias followed the generic 
names of Messrs. Adams in ]iis critical list, a plan which I have 
not adopted. My reasons for this are best found in the words 
of M. Chenu, whose opinion I shall quote in the extract which 
follows — " Lamarck is the true founder of conchology as a 
science, and his generic names, which were always judiciously 
chosen, have bei 'i i; . - • ■!. They belong to science, 

and consecrated by use ought to be preserved, if we do not 
desire to throw into confusion a science which is already com- 
plicated enough, and which the necessary creation of new 
genera is complicating still more. Let us leave to Lamarck the 
credit which no one can deny him. and do not let us uselessly 
re-baptize his famdies and his genera for the sake of ascending 
to equivocal and trifling _< i < i\ >\s < s. which ; re not in most cases 
improvements. The principle of priority is a good one, but it is 
not advisable to a such cases, and above all 

in the names of genera. Most ot the authors whose generic 
names are thus revived knew but a small number of species, and 
their observations were too limited for the names they employed 
to have any otht , , 1" te 

collections with which Linne had to deal were not proportionate 
to the power of Ids <n niiis. ami we cannot suppose that he 
would have misunderstood the differences which did not escape 
Lamarck, whose opportunities for observation were more than 
double, and which have led him to divide the great genera pro- 
posed by that prince of science. It was thus that Lamarck, 
, v...s able to lay the foundations of 
condioioiry, and as it were incorporate the science, but at the 
same time giving us an example by respecting the names given 
by his predecessor- \hiut'M\ hate i < int > i;eneral use. For 
instance, if he dividi a ^ us i • , Sw> ',-'1 naturalist into 
many others, he kept the name given by his illustrious prede- 
one. We have always thought that 
everything should be avoided win h tends to render the access 
to science difficult, and ail iha: v. n i d ^courage the first 
steps. But. we re-n f !.. -ce that Messrs. Adams, in order to 
submit themselves to the principle of priority, have adopted 
names generally ignored or completely forgotten, for genera 



which all conchologists know perfectly well by names long 
consecrated by use. We will give some instances to prove that 
certain names which have no motive whatever for their adoption, 
cannot be preferred at the present <lav to names given since or 
about the same epoch by a man of science, whose book is still 
the most sure and most get Who is the 

collector of the present day who would go back willingly to the 
names given formerly by Bolten, Klein. G-ronovius, Humphrey, 
Link, and Denys de Montfort, to genera which often did not 
exist, or whose < is Lamarck was 

the first to establish ? If we place side by side of the names 
employed by Lamarck the old names whose revival we condemn, 
the question will be decided at once. Thus — Architectonica, 
Bolten = Solarium, Lamarck. Bursa, B. = Ranella, L. Anga- 
ria, B. — Delphinula, L. Sarpago, Klein = Pterocera, L. 
Activo ohm, tv. = CarJUa,!,. P> at nl / 7y/? .v, \\. ~ liirinuln, L. 
Dactylus, K. = Oliva, L. Oladius. K. = Bostellaria, L. Amphi- 
pera.s, Gronovius = Ovula, L. Eutropia, Humphrey = Phasia- 
nella, L. Isognomum, K. = Berna. L. Umbonium, Link = 
Rostella, L." After stating his appreciation and admiration of 
the labours of Messrs. Adams, whose divisions he follows where 
possible, as well as those of Albers, Pfeiffer, and partly Gray, 
;,:;:•: ■ r.i, M. Chenu 

states that he preserves all the names of genera hitherto received, 
and he expressss a hope which I am sure has been generally 
reciprocated, except by a very few conchologists in England, 
that a stand will be made for toe & '< . ■■ I ad pn serration of the 
old names. Otherwise, he says, we must begin to forget the 
scientific language we have learned, and which is not such a 
ire now familiar for more than 
language which offers us no 



I am sure there are few who will not be < 
most reasonable appeal. What have we to 
names ? They are not better and they are of 
for many of them have not been defl 

chologists adopt them 



. 



And if they did would the _ 
any case the whole science of "paleontology vs 
learned again, and all the books hitherto printe 
would be useless, and only tending to confuse i 
who relied i tines. Besid< 

: < :•■•■: ■ 

they can never study that part of the subject, e: 



of Eutropia, Eanella 



be imagined, 

bo rejected 



: ii( nci'a. >i)iK( 
nd insufficient g 

t adopted the 



no! wideenmi-h to pronounce on systems 




i-i, .re 1 earned, 


and more experienced and industrious n 
such care and labour. But I have been d 


len have 


eriM'ted after 


oubtl'ul c 




cation to Australian shells, and in cases \ 






wholly Australian 1 may perhaps safely e 


limaie t' 


en- value, but 


upon what grounds I have always give 


and wi 


1 always give 



In the census publish^ 

to this part of the subject 

followed one another m ii 
few of the leading one- : 
Latreille, Deshayes, 1)'0 



•<n the Continent, am 

not succeeded in establishing a >y 
there has been progress. Even"\ 



now the aim at a 
short of a perfei 



But this excellent • • dU n al Main of those 

natural groups wh ,u . r> - , i <.<• . ,, • . -, i , t .> i 1 -defined, and it 
is even acknowledged by t : . ;,e limits must 



which I 

the characters of some of the other neighbouring groups. The: 
is here the use of a method where there is no precision, and a 
boasting that the plan of nature is followed when that plan is 
confessedly incomprehensible. Indeed it ,,1'ten happens that the 
admired natural method of one differs from the censured arti- 
ficial method of another merely in the circumstance that different 
systems of organs have been made choice of as the basis of 
Che respective classiiications. In less zoologists in the forma- 
tion of their primary groups endeavour to determine those 
characters which all the members possess in common, admitting 
only such marks into the definition, and practise the same 
method with all the subordinate dhisiens. ne progress of the 
science will be unsteady ; the student will be startled at its con- 
tradictions, and the revolutions in nomenclature be as frequent 
as the cultivators of the science are numerous." 

I now proceed to give a brief view of the Molluscan sub- 
kingdom as it affects Tasmania. 

Class, Cephalopoda. 
Argonauta, Spirilla, Sepia, Sec. 1 do not enter into detail in 
this matter, as absolutely next to nothing has been done towards 
their classification in Tasmania. 



Shell thick, with numerous scaly spiniform projections, and 
more or less salient varices or spines; operculum oval, oblong; 
nucleus apical BCurex 3, Typhis 1, Trophon 9, Fusu.s G. 
Siphonalia 5. 

2nd Family, Pleueotomid^:. 

Animal, witli a posterior slit in the mantle corresponding to a 
sinus in the shell, and a straight siphon. Shell turriculate. with 
a canal; operculum horny; odontophore, two lateral series of 
teeth only. Pleurotoma! l 2, Mnngolia 9. 

Daphnella 2. 



)val, oblong ; 
rices. Triton 



Family, Bttccijiidje. 

Animal : Head flat, large, two conical tentacles, 
tubercles at base ; operculum horny, small, dentate at the edge 
odontophore, three lingual teeth in the scries, one central and t 
lateral. Shell oval, oblong, turriculate, notched anterior] 
columella smooth, rounded, with conspicuous callosity, Buccini 
(alveolatum) 1, Cominella 5, Adamsia 1, Nassa 5. Eburna 1. 
Family, Purpuridje. 

Animal : Head small, two conical tentacles often obtuse, in 
the middle of which are the eyes ; foot short, elliptic ; operculum 
horny, with a lateral nucleus. Shell smooth, tuberculous or 
spiny ; columella flattened, pointed, aperture wide with an 
oblique notch. Purpura 6 (this includes one of the family of 
Coralliophilida of Clu-nu our F. ui.Irrj.ururi . out the Tasmanian 
shell does not live on corals). 

Family, OlXTTDM. 

Animal: Almost covering the shell ; foot very large, with two 
auriculate lobes in front ; operculum rudimentary. Shell 
polished, spire almost always very short ; columella often 
twisted, callous. 

Ancillaria 2, Oliva 1. 

Family. Fasciolarid.^. 

Animal, with an enclosed mantle and a straight siphon. 
Operculum ovate acute, nucleus apical. Shell fusiform, with a 
straight canal and plaits on the fore part of the pillar. 

Fasciolaria 3. Josephia 1. The latter a genus which perhap* 
might belong to the Buccindse. 

Animal : Head large, eyes sessile, placed at the back of the 
tentacles, a reversed and auriculated siphon, very large foot partly 
enclosing the shell. No operculum, one single line of teeth. 
Shell highly coloured, ovate, or fusiform, smooth or tuberculate 
with distinct folds on columella, Yoluta 7, Mitra 14, Marginella 
8, Erato 1. 

Family, Columbellut^. 

Animal ; Head large, flat, foot narrow, elongated, oval, siphon 

short, no operculum. Shell short with a periostraca, spire short 

aperture rather narrow often toothed on the outer margin, a slight 

notch at the anterior end of aperture. Columbella 10. 

Family, Cassid^:. 

Animal .- Head large, thick with fine tentacles, eyes at base, 
siphon extensile, thick and salient, mantle with filaments and a 
double fold. Operculum horny, Odontophore, 3-1-3. Shell solid, 
globose, more or less tubercular, aperture narrow, canal abruptly 
recurved. Cassis 4. 



: 



'cond calcareous 
aperture large, 
jr. Odontophore 



> t „rculu;m lu.n 
ith no central 


iv. 1 or lUyhorled. nucleus 

i ribs,' m^utTemiivf vn m I ! . r 
Family, Tereuiudje. 






Animal: He 


:ul large, tentacles small, a 


!, Wm-. 1 


"sl^verv 



Family, Ceritiiiopsidje. 

Animal : He* lea subulate obtuse, eyes at 

base, mouth with ret ran < ] r eis, mantle not reflected with 
rudimentary siphonal fold, operculum horny, on a well developed 
lobe. Shell turreted, many-whorled, spirally keeled. Odon- 
tophore like Xatieida). Cerithiopsis 2. 

Family Solaridje, doubtfully represented, no species 
determined. 

Family, Coxidje. 

Animal : 11 • ■ - .'• .' '■ 

eyes on tubercles at outi r d, an elongate 

siphon at fore part, foot bu ong, conspicuous 

* This name U B ns, but we may adopt it as it is 



aquiferous pore on middle of under surface. Teeth .subulate in 
two series, on tubular prolongation of retractile proboscis, 
bundle of sharp subulate teeth at extremity. 8 hell inversely 
conical, aperture long and narrow, outer lip thin, free or notched 

Family, Ci'PitiEiDiE. 
Animal, elongate, mantle very large with many cirrous fila- 
ments, almost concealing shell, tentacles very long, eyes upon a 
protuberance, siphon short. Odontophore with seven rows 3-1-3, 
branchial plume single, no operculum. Shell in general like 
cowry. Cyprea 6 (one doubtful), Trivia 1, Birostra 1. 
Family, CASCELLARiDiE. 
Animal, with subulate tentacles united at the base, eyes at 
the outside, foot small, simple and triangular without operculum. 



spire short, whorls convex, often i 
entire, no odontophore, rostrum rudimentary. 
Family, CEEiTHimiE. 
Animal, with a large foot, short, ami ant^u 


and ribbed, mouth 
Cancellaria 4. 

lar, a front mantle 


with anterior rudimentary siphonal fold, ros 
folded, eyes at external base of tentacles, whi< 
very wide apart. Odontophore long linear, 3-1 
Op'er.-ul i horny, subspiral. Melt turnYul 
note lien at the anterior aperture, labrum prot 
t'erithium 3, Lampania I, Mittium 1. Tnn.ri 


ate, manv whorls, 
lueed. 



Family, Littorixid.k. 
The family of Perrvw inkles, best characterized by that name. 
See Proc. Linn. Society, X. S. Wales. .June, Ls7S, for the reasons 
why I only make one genus Littorina of Risella, Tectaria, of 
which we have probably four species in Tasmania. Fossarus 2, 
Ampularina 3, Fossarina 1. 

Family, Plan-avid.!:. 
Animal, with a long rostrum, subulate tentacles, eves sessile 
swollen exterior base, foot short, simple with small 






tentacular filaments, operculum thin, horny paucispilttl, 

l — - 3-1-3, and in general much like the perrywiitMi^- 

ian representath* • . ), Diala 3. 

Family, EissoiDiE. 

Small white or horny shells of various forms, but more or less 

turriculate. Animal with a proboscidiform head and subulate 

tentacles, eyes at base, foot long, sub-triangular truncated in 

front. Odontophnr, v, .?;, . :).].:{ ,.,. , r Lvrai ; teeth very broad, 

outer dissimilar ; all with denticulated apices. 

Eissoa 12, Eissoina 7. 



,]y > 




at'ri-1,1 >idiv 




fc, 3-1-8 










Shell tu 


spi, 


Bdlj g 


roov 


ed, aperture 


sis 


:,::., pi: 


iced 


in a different 


J,; 1 . 1 




; >i" X. 


be latter, or 

Inner fixed, 


;ll.ll 


dentit 


ion 


unknown. 



id the foot. 

lalma — eyes pedunculate. 






mily, RbbDI 






'^tUTutaT^S 


[appel 


is. to! 



oblong, triangular, m 



within. Phasianella 5, Turbo 4, Carinidea 2, Astele 1, Liotia 5, 
Cyclostrema 7. Monik-a 2. Ktbalia 1, Adcorbis 1, Minolia 2, 
Cianeulus i:i. Ku.'IhIu- :'.. l"n .tia ! Zi/\ l.l.inus 7, Elenchus 4, 
Bankivia 1, Gibbula 6, Trochocochlea 2, Trochus (Diloma) 2, 
Stomatella 1, Gena 1. 

Family, Haltotibje. 

Animal : Head large, flat, tentacles long, eyes on terminal 
peduncles, foot very large exceeding tbe shell, and fringed, 
Branchial plumes two, no operculum, shell ear-shaped, nacreous. 
Tbe Odontophore is like Trochus 1 median, two beam-like laterals, 
and numerous uncini with denticulated hooks, the four inner 
very large. Haliotis 4. 

Sub-Order Edriophthalma, eyes sessile. 
Family, Fissubellidje. 

Animal : Head with short wide muzzle, body broad, conical, 
tentacles short, fine, eves at base on protuberances, mantle 
margin fissured in front, free edges forming an oval siphon 
through apex of shell, gills two at back of neck, foot dilated 
upper sides with 
not nacreoui . at the apex or slit. 

Fissurella 4, Macroschisma 1, Emarginula 4, Scutns 1, 
Tugalia 1. 

Family, DmrTAXIM. 

Animal, long, conical, truncate entirely enveloped in a mantle 
terminated in a fringed m- plicate varix, foot proboscidiform, head 
distinct and pedunculate, lips with tentacles, but no other fila- 
ments or eyes. Dentaiium 2 : but there are others which may 
belong to the m • a family bv itself near to 

the Vermitid*. 

Family, Tectubidje. 

Animal like preceding, but with gill plume at back of head. 
Odontophore long, two central and two hooked lateral teeth on 
each side in an oblique line. Shells like limpets, apex not 
central. Acmaja 9. 

Family, Patellid2B. 

Animal like preceding but with -ills in cirrhi all round foot. 
Odontophore verv Ion-, teeth simple in numerous transverse 
rows. Shell a simple cone. Patella 6 or 7. 
Family, CnixoyiDJE. 

Animal elongated, dills in lamella, placed like last. Heart 
central, alimentary canal terminating at end of median line. 
Odontophore tm: . .mall, laterals 

large, with dentated h .„k. . , ,. . ,..,.. Shell of numerous plates, 
Chiton. G ? Cryptoplax 2. 



Hermaphrodite molluscs, hranchia always posterior uncovered, 

tenia!, testaceous, lnembranceous. rtidimentarv, or none. 

1st Order Teet ihranchiata. Hranchia covered by shell or fold. 
Family, Cylichxid.t,. 

Animal with frontal disk, head sub-quadrate, truncate in front, 
produced behind into broad flattened recumbent lobes, with eves 
immersed in front of their bases, mantle with posterior thickened 
lobe, foot shorter, thin shell truncate in front, no operculum. 
Odontophorc 6-6, g il ad hooked, outer uniform. 

Shell without colour, cylindrical, spirally convoluted, spire short. 
Cylichna 2, Tornatina 1. 

Family, BlTLLIM. 

A nimal, partlv or wholly emeriti- shell, frontal disk expanded, 



tentacles, mantle with interna! calcareous plate protecting gi.l. 
Odontophore broad, short, teeth, central one, lateral numerous 
similar, gizzard with cartilaginous plates. Aplvsia 2. 

Nothing has been done hitherto with the Xudihranchiate 
molluscs, and [ need not pursue the elassitication for the 
brackish water shells, such as Ophieardelus 2 and Auricula, as 
they are so widely separated from the other families that it would 
extend this essay too long to explain the intermediate system. 
Our Marinula is a mar uumal is studied 





It i 

onical 

intra! 


The 



another, South Australians far as Eucl 

Australia another. In this sense we sh 

its relations a\ ith the South Australian 



Be„mi i 
(P.trann 
Port Ph 









All these shells are betv 


i-een the ti.i 






utter 


from the shore we find H 


















Venus roborata, V. gallinu 










There are also three sped 


.-s'nf'jyy//, 








of the rocks, M. latus, M 




and j/. /,/ 






list I mention only the m 




shells, to ^ 




in places, Chiton petholatus and C. 




coS m wi 


B this 


now with Guichen Bay oi 


i the South Australian 


B .still 


find Patella tra>,wsn'rca 






'and' the' 




varieties nf LUtonaa. Bu 


tin place of 








winch in Tasmania swar 










numbers of a Thnlotia, J 










the variety (which is iv* 






\\. —' ( 




and F.Veherj. T. liamhun 


, £lr:,r/ lt; , i 


^rv'la^; 


,hut"nor : 


id A". 


the rocks; they are f'oniu 




the sea-wi 


,>e<ls a I in! 


e way 



in Vi,':..: 
Littoriii.' 



preoccupied, 
be adopted. 



Pecten laticost atut, south c :>■ only, small and rare. Limopsis 
decussata, doubtfully on the north coast. Cylichna arachis, 
common. lAot\ common. Fissurella 

rather rare, and in Sydney. 



The Chatrma>* said, precisely the same tiling occurred with the 
vegetable kingdom as with the animal, as described by Mr. 
Tenison-Woods. Along our own coast and the coast of Queens- 
land there were upwards of 200 species of ferns, whereas on the 

species. As we go to the southward and westward the number of 
ferns decreases, while as we go to the north the number increases. 
There was nothing so marked in the vegetation of this country 
as the want of ferns in the southern part of Victoria, South 
Australia, and Western Australia ; whereas there was nothing 
more marked than the large number of ferns on the eastern 
coast. Some of them attained a very great height. Some of 
them did not extend beyond the Dandenong Bange, west and 
south. (Mr. Tenison-Woods: I do not think there are any in 
South Australia.) No, but in this country they abound, and 
reach a height perhaps equal to any in the world. On the Blue 
Mountain Range they attain a height of about 60 feet. He 
desired to make a suggestion with regard to the discussions on 
their papers. The late Sir William Denison endeavoured to set 
short papers read in order to excite discussion. 1 le believed if 
they had short papers read, they would excite discussions that 
would be both interesting and instructive to the members of the 
Society. 

Dr. Neild thought, with regard to the suggestion of the Chair- 
man, the idea about discussions could be carried out in even a 
simpler way, namely, by members having the power to propose 
certain subjects. He was a member of an institution in England, 
and they met once a month and had exceedingly valuable dis- 
cussions in this way. He thought the idea, if carried out, would 
lead to profitable results, v..\u\ great h increase the interest of the 
meetings. 

The Chaibm an thought that could only be done by means of 
short papers. 






Australian Tertiary Fossil Corals and 
Polyzoa. 



[Read before the Xoyal £ 



Last year I published in the Proceedings of this Society (vol. 11, 
p. 183) a descri ,rv fossil corals from the 

Muddy Creek beds, Western Victoria. Since then I have found 
others amongst the detritus and matrix of fossils in my posses- 
sion. They are of especial interest, not only from the beauty 
and peculiarity of their form, but also because of the new facts 
they contribute to our tertiary paleontology and the structure of 
corals generally. In the first place I am able to signalize the 
discovery of a Montlivaltia in our tertiary beds, and this is 
another link to that chain of facts which gives our tertiary fauna 
such a mesozoic aspect; I allude especially to the discovery of 
Salenia and Belemnites in the Aldinga beds, Thamnastrcea in 
Tasmania, our t ink generally, and Pleuroto- 

maria, Trigonia . . among the mollusca. Most 

of these genera have probably living representatives, though 
they were at their highest development long before the dawn of 
the tertiary period. Month ',: - i - • .ir instance. The 
genus was established by Lamouroux {Expos. M4ti Hqtte ikm 
genres de Vordre des Polypiers, Caen, 1821, page 78) for a trochoid 
simple free coral found in the Jurassic limestone near Caen. It 
includes at least a hundred species, the most of which are found 
in the Jurassic or the chalk formations. There are about ten 
tertiary' species known, but none living. The tertiary species 
are Eocene and Miocene. The forms of this coral vary very 
much, from conical to discoid. I cannot find that one form is 
more peculiar to any given period than another. The discoid 
corals are few in that the fossil to 

which I draw at'. 

is flat or even <• ■.'■ is, I believe, rare in the 

genus. There is a fossil form lately described by Mr. Tomes 
* This Trigonia is a remarkable instance, as it is so different from our living 



(Jour. Oeol. Soc, vol. 34, p. 193) from the Lias of Warwickshire, 
which is very like our species, hut it is attached while the present 
is free. The following is the diagnosis : — 



Moxtlivaltia. Discus. Gorallum circular, depressed, convex, 
but slightly depressed in the centre. Costa corresponding with 
septa, faintly visible under the epitheca, covered with rather large 
but faint rounded granules. Epitheca thick, smooth, showing 
scarcely any concentric lines of growth. Systems six, cycles four. 
Septa moderately thick, regularly and finely dentate, the serrations 
extending as ridges far along ihe higher orders; moderately 
granular. Primaries nearly always free to the centre. Tertiaries 
curving round and joiuing'seeomlaries at about three-fifths from 
centre, but the secondaries are not subsequently thicker. Fourth 
and fifth orders curving round and joining the tertiaries, but the 
fifth order always nearer the centre than the fourth. Endotheca 
abundant, no interseptal space without one or two dissepements, 
thick, curved, sloping. Base concave, and no trace of attach- 
ment. In some eases the secondary septa of some systems curve 
suddenly and join the primaries close to the centre. Diameter, 
<5i. air. '1 millims. Muddy Creek ; not very abundant. 

There is a coral described by Professor lhmcan from the Aus- 
tralian tertiaries which is very like this species. It is named 
AntiUia lens, and from the Professor's description I judge the 
difference to be that it has a columella, the septa do not unite 
in the manner here described, and the cndoiheca is not abundant. 
In all other respects they might easily be mistaken for one 

interesting characters. It is a combination of some of the lead 
ing character-- • and sub-families. It is 

a Turbinolidian coral with pali, without a columella and a per- 
forated wall ! It is well known that the perforation and non- 
perforation of the walls of corals form two of the largest sub- 
sections of the Ma or ki-ok aria. The perforated section is less 



v,itl; B 


n.-'ih,-" 
is thus 


this l"os«il occurs are so little explo 
characterized : — 


red. J 
Trema 


-'. as th'f 






Tjtxn 


CATOTBOCHUS 


, new genus. 






Corallum free, with tl 
only united in the mid 
ticulie and the wall in 
at regular intervals. 


ip visceral chambers freejli 
Xo cjutlura. TniOIATOT 


' > "T I; ; 


distinct, 

• rsvnap- 



while the co 



septa are only rudimentary ; so that if we found this coral in its 
young stage we should have no fourth cycle of septa, and no 
primary and secondary cost a. Thus the costa would alternate with 
the septa, A\ r e see in this, probably, a proof that an extra cycle of 
costa shows that a cycle of septa to correspond with them either 
will appear or is aborted. It would be very interesting to learn 
if there are tentacles in the animal to correspond with the extra 
cycle of costa, or organs of any kind that will account for the 
irregularity. In Trochoojad the primary costa 

at the end of the major axis are continuous to the base, and 
even wider than the fourth and fifth order. This shows us some- 
thing of the mode of growth, which may be of interest in tracing 
the homology of these organs. It seems very certain that the new 
forms which An ' ..■; forth will here- 

after throw much light on rlic moaning of many of those facts 
which an imperii : -la n of nature has rendered 

apparently anomalous, and which may eventually lead to a more 
sound system of classification than that at present adopted. 



Class, Poltzoa. Order, Infundibulata. Sub-order, Gheilosto- 
mata. Section, Inarticulata. Sub-section, Bi-multiaerialia. 
Family, Gcmellariadce. Cells opposite, in pairs. 
The fossil which I am about to describe is close to Gemellaria, 
wherein the cells are joined back to back, and all the pairs face 
the same way. But in this species the faces alternate in two 
ways— that is, the faces are on all four sides of the almost cylin- 
drical branches, and they alternate in each of the opposing cells 
arising on the side of the centre of its alternate neighbour. This 
peculiarity is of generic value, and I propose the name of Tetra- 
plaria for the genus. A fossil similar to this has been included 
in the genus Cellaria by A. E. Eeuss.f It is a Miocene form of 
the Vienna basin, which the author thus describes : Cellabia 
SCHBEIBEBSI. G. gracillima, raro dichotoma, celluUs t/uadrijhriis 
ovatis aut semi-< .,' , cOMMCffM, medio punctatis 

apcrtura supera, imm> rstt, bite dlij-tica, pon'.s duolttts minimis later- 



The specimen figured by me differs from this i 



Adelaide Philosophical Socid v ui the corals fou: 

by Professor Tate in the Aldinga beds. 

t Fossile Polyparien de$ Wiener Tertiar Beckens. Vol. 2, p. 63, plate 



! j 



P. with smooth slender hraru-hes. Cells elongately pyrifoni. 
"'uS CreV^ occurrence of a fossi 

of these beds. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 
Fig. la. MonUh-aWa discus, enlarged. 



Correction to the assumed Longitude of 
the Sydney Observatory. 
By John Tebbutt, E.R.A.S. 

[Read before the Royal Socio!,/ of X.S.W., 5 June, 1S7S.] 

One of the most important problems to the colonists, from an 
astronomical, a nautical, or a geographical point of view, is the 
accurate detei itude of the Sydney Obser- 

vatory. .Four methods maybe mentioned for this determination, 
namely, the transportation of chronometers, observations of moon- 
culminations compared with corresponding ones at Greenwich, 
observations of lunar occultations of stars, and exchanges of 
telegraph signals between Europe and the Observatory. Of 
these four methods, only one has hitherto been employed, namely, 

the year 1859, the Eev. W. Scotr, the" then Government 
Astronomer, observed forty-eight meridian transits of the moon, 



at the Cape of Good Hope and Greenwich 

and Meteorological Observations f>>r LM'.l." page s ~. that twenty- 
three transits in IS.")!), compared wit ii corresponding ones at the 
Cape of Good Hope, give lOh. 4m. lid:3s. H., and that thirty- 
three in lSb'O and IsfJL, c ■■;.: .; . . ; oiidiug ones at 
Greenwich, give lOh. dm. lOGOs. E. as the longitude— the mean 
result being lOh. 4m. 4574s. E. In vol. xxvii of the Royal 



paper on the longiti 

the present Astronomer Royal at the Cape 

that paper he has compared" sixteen transits of the moon's first 

limb, and eight of the second, observed at Greenwich and Sydney 

in 1859, the resulting longitudes being respectively lOh. 4m. 

45-05s. and lOh. 4m. 48-08s. E. He has also compared thirteen 

transits of the first limb, and eleven of the second, observed at 

both places in 1860, with the respective results— lOh. 4m. 4581*. 



and lOh. 4m. 5005s. E. Combining the observations of the two 
vears he <->t for the resulting longitude— lOh. 4m. 4539s. E. 
from observations of the first limb, and lOh. 4m. 4926s. E. from 
observations of the second limb : or. as the final result, lOh. 4m. 
47-:J2s. I'.. This value differs oulv l"5Ss. from the Eev.W. Scott's, 
before stated I'. . missions ,\ the Key. W. Scott and Mr. 
Stone, so far as I am aware of. are the only ones that have yet 
appeared.* 1 believe, however, that the method of moon-culmi- 

occultations uVst:ns. While the Crcenwich corrections to the 
moon's tabular places in the meridian depend, of course, upon 
observations made by thoroughly practised observers with the 
great transit circle, whose telescope is an instrument of about 8 
inches aperture and nearly 12 feet focal length, and a clock of 
the highest .lass, the transits at Sydney were observed with a 
telescope of only •'! ; inches aperture and 62 inches focal length, 
with a clock of not Brst-rate quality. The determinations of 
right ascension at Sydney cannot, therefore, compare in point of 
accuracy with those"' made at Greenwich. What we want here, 
therefore, are observations which are more nearly comparable m 



longitude would 1 


he correct willmi -i -eoond of 'tune Professor 




< - Investigations' of Corrections to Hansen's 


Tables of the M< 


•on. Washington. 1 s76." says that the detormi- 


nations of long 




experience to be 


subjecttoconsnn t errors which it is difficult to 


determine and al 


low'Vor. and that it was, therefore, a part of the 


policy of the An 


icrican Commission for the observation of the 


transit of Venus 




moon-culminatioj 








of either the Syc 


i'i:ev or Melbourne < ihservatories, or, indeed, of 


any other posit'io 


n in this or the adjacent Colonies, by means of 



thought it woule 
the results befoi 
the Colony couh 
of any other poii 






With the exception of the discordant observation before men- 
tioned to have been rejected, the extremes of the individual 

and not likelv apprc-iahlv to afiYvt the computed longitude. 
Adopting no\v Vessel's ratio of the squares of the earth's 
semi-axes, or 2=01)988264, I got 33=25' 530'' and 9*905576 

as the geocentric latitude and ihe log. earth-radius corresponding 
tomy observatory. With these constants, correctionsof the moon's 
tabular places concluded from observations at Greenwich, and an 



PROPOSED COBBECTI02T TO THE ASSUMED 



||o| •»«o Ss ««:g.,ooo, 

«3 S | + + + + + + + + | + + + 


1 


+ + + + ■+- + + + I + + + 


f J 




+ ! + + + 1 1 1 '+ 1 


Ill++!llll7l 


i 
s 

! 


sl!^?? s ' **?!?*? 


. ;■ j - 5 I I I I I I I ! 


! K 


\ i2 S? 3 8 ° S h SS88 


1 1 1 -iiiUi 


i i~i | 



The value S— c in the eighth column of the table is the difference 
between the calculated apparent semi-diameter (S) of the moon 
and the calculated apparent distance (c) of the star from the 
moon's centre for the Observatory mean solar time of disappear- 
ance. Assuming that the only corrections required to the 
tabular elements are those of the moon's right ascension and 
north polar distance, the final equations give the corrections in 
the last column of the table. The moon's apparent right ascen- 
sions and north polar distances have been interpolated with 
second differences from the Xauticu .11 <anac and the Green- 
wich corrections applied. I may mention that the occupation of 
m Tauri on March 2, 1868, is a very unfavourable one for the 
determination of the longitude, owing to its disappearance 
having taken place near the moon's northern limb. If, there- 
fore, we reject the correction due to this observation, we have 
for the mean of the remaining eleven corrections, allowing equal 
weights to all, + 7'6is., and the longitude of my observatory 
becomes lOh. 3m. 2334s. E. 

It may also be well to state that the observation of the dis- 
pearance of if/' Aquarii on November 30, 1870, was rendered 
uncertain owing to a passing cloud. It will be interest in <: for 
the sake of comparison to state here that I have compared fifty- 
three transits of the moon observed at Windsor with the hourly 
Ephemeris in the Nautical Almanac, corrected bv means of the 
observations with the Washington transit circle. " These transits 

being of the first limb, and two of the second. The mean result 
for longitude is lOh. 3m. 21o8s. E., which agrees pretty well 
with that derived from the occultations. In May, 1865, a number 
of signals by eh ' 'tween the late 

Mr. Smalley and myself, in order to determine the difference of 
longitude between 'Sydney and Windsor. The result of this 
exchange of signals was thai i v observatory was lm. 30"04s. 
west of that of Sydney. No regard, however, was paid to per- 
sonal equation in this determination. If now we add this quan- 
tity to the corrected longitude of my observatory, as given in 
this paper, we have lOh. 4m. 5338s. E. as the longitude of the 
Sydney Observatory. This value is greater by 764s. than that 
determined by the Rev. Mr. Scott from moou-culminations at 
Greenwich and Sydney. 

I have a few other observed occultations of well-determined 
■tars, both at disappearance and re-appearance, made since 1874, 
but the Greenwich corrections are not yet available. I trust at 
some future date to be enabled to turn these occultations to 
account, and also to obtain more trustworthy corrections of the 
tabular elements from a discussion of the meridian observations 
made at all the principal observatories during the semi-lunations 
in which the occultations have occurred. 



has been determined satisfactorily i. 

In conclusion, I may mention th 

this paper to the lust meeting of the 
Society, but that I deemed il cxped 
out of a proposed exchange oi' tclee; 
more trustworthy determination of 
between Sydney and "Windsor. An 
exchange of signals during the la 
! her having set in tlie [) 

•he Council in time for 



The folh 
forwarded 
Astronomic 


!'i 


i- Mipph-m, 

Mr. Teh!,: 

Section oft! 


:ie So 


paper on 
nd read a 
ciety, held 


the sat 
t the n 
on Jun< 


On the E 

the Eoyal 


s!' 


iety a paper 


d heh 


'■■■.■■',■ '.'. : , 


to the 



tude of the Sydney Observatory, deduced from 
lunar occupations of stars, made at mv observat 
the years lSG6-68-69-70-7:^-7 !, In that paper tv 
of well-determined stars were discussed, two 
unfavourable for longitude results. One of the 
was rejected, as having occurred near the moon" 
and the resulting longitude of mv ozonator 
depend on the eleven remaining 'oceultations 
lomlim.'-irm*. I-:., f C.reenuieh; and toil was a 



nd more accurate determination of the difference. This unfortu- 
ately could not be ace , !:i . i.- ; ., ,[ [ u t u e !', r ti c presentation of 
»y japer to the Societj . A m now, however, 



Mean of thirt y-fmir signals sent from 

Ditto of forty (! it 1. 1. Windsor to Sydney... lm. 28-88s. 

Mean of all lm. 2S-83s. 

If now we reject both tlie unfavourable occultations referred 
> in my paper,' and assi-n equal weights to the remaining ten 

Assumed longitude of my observatory lOh. 3m. 1570s. 

Correction from the ten mvultations ... -j- 684$. 
Longitude of the Sydney Observatory 

east of mine + lm. 2S-83s. 



Concluded longih 
Observatory 


ide of the Sydney 

" ... lOh. 4m. 51-378. 


This value exceeds 1 
i -culmination 


3\ 0-oCs. that obtained by Mr. Eussell 
s observed by himself during the years 


I trust, before the c 

I'letrly. 1 have other o 
which 1 vet require the 
In the meantime I an 
brought before the A 
regarded in the light 


lose of the present session of the Eoyal 

ccultations of well-determined stars, for 
corrections of the moon's tabular places, 
i desirous that these few remarks may be 
stronomical Section of the Society, and 

of an appendix to mv paper already 



the Meteorology of the Coast of New South 
Wales during the Winter Months, with the 
desirability of issuing cautionary storm warnings, 
by telegrams to the various ports, from the Obser- 
vatory. 
By Makshall Smith, Master of the ship "T. L. Hall." 

[Bead before the Eoyal Society of X.S. W., 3 July, 1878. ] 






tlXn 


ees of 

s" anil 


th, and which 

1 pry port vat 

barometrical 




::£ 


state of the 
come up and 
he gales com- 



July, 1-77. tlu" ; Y™ 

eyeloni-) v.r li.,1 iutl.e 



Kr i:iv, JuK IX :;oi>0 :',.).';<; 

Sulnnlny, July 11 30-10 30-30 



the difference between the 






to exist, and that instead of a set of low readings we find that— 
as in July, 1876 and 1877— the readings getting high at our coast 
stations, and the gradients beginning to steepen in the reverse 
order, I think we may fairly infer that an atmospherical disturbance 
of an anti-cyclonic character is threatening our coast, which may 
or may not reach our shores. 3. If the last inference is true (as 
the writer believes it is, and also believes that it is only by the 
careful study of meteorological data That this can be determined), 
i found to be so, then surely it would become 

ng from the Observatory by telegraph to the 

warnings could be hoisted, and old and ill-found vessels would 

spherical disturbance had passed away. 

It may be said that the writer only ^ives the barometer readings 
preceding two gales, viz., those of July, L87G and 1S77, to sub- 
stantiate this theory, and that this is not sufficient. In reply he 
ean only say that they are the only ones : that he has been able (by 









enerally been able to tell from the barometer 



The Chatrmas said this was not necessary. The printing of 
the papers read was a matter that rested with the Council. 

Mr. Kinlocii asked what was meant by the steepness of the 
gradients, and coming in the reverse order. These storms 
interested him. Would M r. EtiuaeU tell them if he had noticed 
5 atmosphere before these fierce south-east storms 
ally been i~ * 
when the; 

Mr. Bumeli said: Mr. Marshall Smith has raised a most 
important question, and I wish he had s.ui more about it. I 
felt rather disposed to shirk speaking about it to-night, because 
it is a long subject to go into, and would take about an hour to 
explain, on the assumption that there are members present who 
do not understand it. The writer of the paper really raises a 
wide question as to the character of the atmospheric disturbances 
on our coast. In England they have clearly made out the 
cyclonic character of the storms that pass over Great Britain. 
In New Zealand the character of the storms is very much the 
same ; but in America they have quite a different state of things — 
the storms travel there in a different way. Now, in order to 

telegram from a large number of stations, and since I have 
received such telegrams at the Observatory, I have learned to 
correct some ideas I had formed about our weather ; one of these, 
viz., that our storms are similar to t.ho>e in Im^land — that is, 
that they are cyclonic — I had to give up. I am convinced that 
our storms are not cyclonic, in the ordinary sense of the term. 
Now in fine weather Ave generally get winds from the northern 
points; but if the barometer in'-ins to fail in the summer, the 
wind gradually veers round to the westward, and thence to the 
south, the barometer indicating the approach of the southerly 
wind bv a steady rise. As the polar wind comes in the loss of 
pressure is made up, and the wind dies out, and with a high 
(about 30 inches) barometer we have a return of fine weather. 
Such is the ordinary fine weather course of the wind. The 
weather telegrams have taught me this— that, for some reason 
which I am at a loss to explain, the barometric waves which pass 
rapidly across the surface of the earth in this country generally 
come from some point between south and south-west. Arising 
barometer on the south or south-west coast indicates that tho 
barometer will soon rise here. The effect is that if one of these 

southern coast which gives rise to a strong southerly wind. 
This represents what Mr. Smith speaks of as a gradient. If yon 
will refer to the daily weather map vou will see that these 
gradients frequently exist, but until they rise to 6 or 7 they 
are not dangerous ; that is until the difference of barometers 



for every 6 


) miles is 


0-OG or ( 


07: but 


lit'! 


d we 


seldom 


have anythi 


.11 Of the 




the " Da 




tong' 






gradient, 


but there 






like 


■ir.-ular 




It came in 


from the south-west 




. full 


wed up 


the Murray 






to Bathi 




and 




Sydney by the easterly motion of the at mo s pi i 










d. It read 




-(I atas 


,ea! 








—about 10 












1 oVlurka.i 


. and was i, 




f the A.S 








off the coast 


beyond !>o 


t Macquar 


ie. I tra 


vii 


that - 


una iu 



( that of the 
dss. I have 
m obli-ed to 

1 know that 



had existed for only a short time. 1 think the number of gales 
of wind of at all a serious eaaramr on this roast are small com- 
pared with those that prevail in Xcw Zealand or the Mother 
Country. (Applause.) 



Storms on the Coast of New South Wales. 
By II. C. Kussell, B.A., F.K.A.S., Government Astronomer. 

[Read before the Royal Society <f y.S. IF., 7 .L'just, 1878.] 

I purpose in fchi r your notice the results of 

my observations upon the storms which pan over New South 
"Wales. Before doing so, however, I should like to say a few 
words about some of the terms used in describing storms, and 
the sense in which I shall use them here. Aud first, what is a 
meteorological gradient ? It is a term that has but recently 
been introduced, and is the expression for one of the atmospheric 
conditions, viz., a state in which if the pressure as shown by the 
barometer be examined along some line of country it will bo 
found to increase or decrease gradually, as. for instance, when 
an area of low pressure exists it is found that the readings of 
barometers on lines radiating from its cent re tret gradually 
greater. It is not supposed that the atmosphere, like water, may 
have an inclination on its surface ; but that it is in somewhat the 
same condition as a large mass of water heated more at one part 
than at another, and just as water in that condition would begin 
to move, the warmer flowing over the colder with a rapidity pro- 
portionate to the difference in temperature, so when a gradient 
exists in the atmosphere we have the condition which will produce 
motion, and the steeper the gradient the more rapid the motion. 
Various methods have been devised for expressing gradients. 
In England, a gradient is the difference in pressure expressed in 
hundredths of an inch of the barometer, between two places 60 
miles apart : thus a gradient of 6 means that in 60 miles the 
pressure changes 0"06 in.; on the continent of Europe gradients 
are measured in millimetres instead of hundredths of an inch. 

When the term is used here the English gradient is that 
understood. Now the experience in Europe amounts to this : 
that the force of wind will not exceed a fresh breeze, or :50 miles 
an hour, unless the gradient is higher than (5. so that a gradient 
along our coast would have to rise a difference in pressure 
between Sydney and Newcastle, for instance, of <Ki before the 
wind would become strong from this cause, but there is another 
consideration v. ' weight when estimating 

the effect of gradients, and that is the time that they continue"; 



exist between two pla 
removes the tendency 

breeze cornea with 11 

appreciable effect upc 



comes to a highei 


r latitude" on its < 


svay south, a. 


ul its easterly 




ich greater than 


the earth's i 




there, that it becoi 




wind, or per 




tude, has just tlie 


e polar current, c 


~iQ \J, K V 


n ,^'f uTwanls 


west and north, or 


from south-east/ 




iral wind being 



jual, veering to north as the tropical -airn force. 
5 the polar element increases, and being, when fchii 



mastery, south-east. Another important considerate 

to the meeting of these winds is their extent. The 

not only at onr point of observation, but extends many hundreds 

of miles ea 

the equato 



est of us. Now, if from an extr 


a' healing at 


than the usual amount of wind is 




if it at the meeting ? Generally 




wind. Sometimes it drives bae 




do of Australia is in the tropical 




re reported from the whole of sou 


Lh-east A us- 



of the north-easterly 
nd the light westerly 
s is steadily blowing 



X."W. hot wind. In fact 

a esc latitudes by the actio 
he X.W. wind, being as it v\ 
. and supply it, but it does 



come with the southerly i ^ 
air tlic barometer rises rapidly, and the partial vacuum in the 
trades is supplied general lv in'a few hours, but at times it will 
blow hard from the south for days. The cause being thus removed, 
and the trade wind want supplied, the usual course of fine 
weather returns. If, however, the sun maintains its demand at 
the equator these inrushes of polar wind are frequent, and the 
regularity of the north-easters is disturbed. 

There is still another form of disturbance resulting from excess 
in sun power, and it appears to come on in this way : If the 
sun be unusually powerful upon the interior it makes a sudden 
demand upon the supply of air for its up-current, our north- 
easter comes in with unusual force, and the southerly winds rush 
in from the south coast ; these meet the warm tropical current, 
and give rise to thunderstorms which in many cases seem to be 
small cyclones. I do not like to be too positive about their 
character, for some of them seem to be so large that it is difficult 
to conceive of their passing over us with so little wind disturb- 
ance as they do. But with your permission I will refer to one 
storm that I brought under your notice last year, bearing upon 
this subject. The occasion "for my doing so" was, as you may 
remember, the passage of several remarkable thunderstorms over 
Sydney. The one to which I refer was on the 27th November, 
1877. That morning was fine and very warm at Sydney ; the 
temperature in the shade rose to 84*0, and the sun thermometer 
in black box showing the sun's heating power rose to 105-5. The 



of the tropical hot wi 


nil nearer than usual "and afresh 


„<•( breeze 


came in. The shade 




vreat. At 


Bourke it rose to 118 


\ In Victoria and Adelaide a 1 




S.W. wind without an 




'.were the 


Conditions that gave t 






bered in the western 


districts. At Grenfell great °da 




done to the houses 1 




I ;l t other 


places on the storm's 


track it proved most destructive. 


At noon 


the storm clouds coul 


d he seen in the west from Sydr 




5 p.m. a deluge of 1 


lili and rain broke over the cit 




watching this storm I 


was struck by the long interva 





1 



under the clouds. Other flashes were observed, not perpendi- 
cular, 10 seconds, 12 seconds, and so on. The storm clouds must 
therefore have had an altitude of at least 9,000 feet. 



i cloud passed over Sydney with an a 
shown, I found the storm was n 
)er hour ; and taking the time of iti 
dnev the velocity is found to be G8 



\iZ 



aph sheet attached.) At" 920, 
.ally sudden//?/ set in for 20 



we have here a sudden rise 

ii- and u mid not be filled up 
would be distributed. Now we 






ity would be 
sufficient to 
ubt about the 
ve offered of 



the fact, but it passed over so rapidly that there would not be 
time to get tbe heavier air in motion below it, impeded us such an 
effect would be by surface friction. And further, in proof 
that such cyclone storms are translated as I have supposed, it 
may be stated thai it is a fact of common observation with 
regard to whirlwinds which pass along the surface rapidly, 
especially in the interior, and it was ouce my good fortune to see 
such storms in the > : in piogreaR 

When coming from Auckland to Sydney in October, 1875, the 
steamer's course brought us on the southern side of a series of 
such whirling storms that were travelling to the eastward; we 
passed through several smaller n'u >. w 1 1 h -i ud\ amounted on 
the surface to a -hower : but several of con- 

siderable size were iu sight, and they presented the appearance 
of a mass of cumulus clouds rolled up, the sides being shaped 
like those of a funnel, but not coming to a point ; they seemed 
very dense, as if a torrent of rain were falling there ; the clouds 
did not reach the surface, and between the two well-defined 
sloping sides they seemed to curve upwards. These cyclones • 
were probably two to three miles in diameter, and about -} of that 
in height; the\ pr. _-.'<- rd.--.-a.nl;. to the east. Many similar 
storms recorded '! 

Wr I :r<: . i ■-■■;■, 

sion for which I have no time now, but may suggest in what 
direction it would lead me. I have found by the Old records, 
that our most important thunderstorms have taken place in the 
latter half of November, and the earth as von knov. passes the 
gK fceor stream on 13th and 11th of that month. 

enough in its milder forms, and at times rises to the danger pitch, 
but as it will be mj <sibl< thin the lii <l this paper to give 
many examples, I must select one or two that are typical and 
leave to your imagination or memories others that are oi less con- 
sequence to us in tracing the causes of our storms. 

This form is the summer easterly storm, commonly known as 
the black north-easter; that is, a strong N.E. wind, that blows 
continuously night and day for several days. The weather 
usually become^ el n<U :.- the ; i:\ \ •-.„•< od-" or perhaps is so 
when it begins, an hey are not so 

strong or so dangerous us the winter casteriv -ale," because the 
direction is una i .; ; to that a vessel can 

beat off, while the iowe from B. to S.E., fair on 

to the coast. * 

But to turn to the selected example. On the 17th February, 
1873, with barometer at 3001, weather very fine and N.E. 
breeze; 18th, barometer 3012 very fine, S.E. breeze; 19th, 
barometer 2998, hot and cloudv, N.E. breeze; 20th, barometer 



source. The attached observations 
ather and barometer changes similar 



mfortunattdv I tind but few. Colonel 
t, happened to be camped near Alice 
centre of Australia as possible, from 
1, 1878; and he says, little or no rain fell 
3 temperature observations which he took 



show that the v. ill the time, but hottest in 

February ; unfortunately he does not give the daily readings or 
the heat wave, might have been traced. At Bourke we find a 
similar account of the weather, viz., very hot in February, 
especially from Kith to 22nd. Such readings as 106-109°, &c, in 
the shade, point to a sun power quite enough to require a good 
deal of wind from the south and east coasts to make up for the 
up-current it would set in motion. 

Weather at Country Stations from 19th to 2Gth February, 

1873:- 
Thargomindah ...19th, barometer falling till 21th, fell 040, gradual 

rise till end of month. 
Armidale Barometer very steady; wind E ; ruining on 22nd 

and 21th ; 3 inches recorded in the two days. 
Bourke Weather very hot during February ; on 16th 

maximum shade 109° ; 17th, 91° ; 18th, 95° ; 19th, 

106° ; 20th, 100° ; 21st, 91°. 
Port Macquaric Wind W., went round to N.E. on 24th and 

E. on 25th ; thick rainy weather after 19th, with 

frequent thunderstorms and a great deal of light- 

Cassilis Heavy thunderstorms ; violent S. W. gale on 28th. 

Scone Very hot and oppressive, winds S. W. 

Muswellbrook... Heavy thunderstorms with rain from 20th till 

end of month ; winds N.N.E. and X.E. 
West Maitland Fine till 21st, dull till 21th, raining rest of 

month ; fresh E. winds. 
Newcastle Barometer steady, slight faU (0"30) till 23rd, then 

rose 0-10 ; fresh N.E. winds ; raining after 22nd, 

stormy on 25th. 

Orange E. winds ; heavy thunderstoms and rain. 

Bathurst Barometer fell gradually about 0'30 until 21th, 

then rose a little; fine weather; stormy on 25th; 

wind N.E. on 19th, S.E. on 25th, calm on other 

dates. 

Kurrajong Heavy thunderstorms and rain ; wind N.E. 

Mount Victoria Earoinetrr. slight fail till 22nd. then rose again; 



Woodford Barometer, slight fall (030) till 2: 

till end of month ; wind on 19th 
remaining days calm ; heavy rain 

Parratnatta Thunderstorms with very heavy ] 



w< 


Bather at Country Stations— continued. 


Liverpool . . . . 


..Barometer fell" 025 till 23rd, then went 1 




again; wind W . till 21st, then E. ; thun 








days, viz., 25th and 26th. 


Wentworth.... 


..Eresh 8."W. winds; fine till 25th; stormy 




26th and till end of month. 


Moss Yale .... 


..Thunder and hail storms, heavy rains ; 7 in 




in one day (26th). 


Goulburn .... 


..Barometer fell about 030 till 23rd, then 




again ; wind variable ; thick rainy weather. 


Terrara 


...Thunderstorms on 20th and 23rd, 1257 in 




recorded on 26th. 


Cape George.. 


. Barometer fell O30 between 19th and 22nd, 




rose 0-25 between 22nd and 25th; X.E. < 




prevalent ; heavy rains and thunderstorms. 


Lake George . 


..Barometer fell 0"30 till 23rd. then rose a: 



Barometer J 
end of moi 
storms and 


i'h: 


,;-';■"" 


tth, rose again towards 
wind, S.E. ; thunder- 
p.m., 22nd. 


L'radnaliv : 
after the a 


B.S 


about 0-20 
I.E. and S.E. 


till 23rd, rose again 
winds ; heavy storm 


.Barometer 
21th, then 
storms and 


fell 


gradually ; 1 


9 between 19th and 
ine until 8 p.m., 23rd; 

nth. 


.Winds E. ; 
of month. 


thl 


mderstorms 


on 21st ; rain till end 


.Barometer 


■ fell 0.22 between 19th and 23rd, and 



Turn in jj cur attention 

The general ehar.u-'ei 
barometer, great humidi 
from some point bctwe 



mited (almost) to the m 
as to the cause of the 



\ noon on July 24 
the 25th it blew 
a 26th it was cleai 






and then sud 




high— 100 on* 21 
down to 670 or 


easterly gale 


L-.-ierlv 
from 


gales were ven 
100 to 619 per 


1875. The early 


part of the wi 



,-csterlv winds were 
the 5-6 of June a little easterly gale— 
if I may so express myself— set in, with barometer, "on 5th, 
30-196, falling steadily on 6th and following days. Humidity, 
877, and rain very heavy ; on 5th, 92 ; on 6th weather clearing 
at night : the miles of wind en 5tli, 598 ; and on 6th, 521, Later 
in the winter the westerly winds gained force up to 500 and 659 
miles per day, and we had no return of easterly gale. 

In 1876 the westerly winds were strong only twice, the first 






records of these S.E. 



3 given in the following tables 





Table showing 




uta] ob 




s during S.E. gales. 


«- 


- 


* 




A 




— • 




Si: 


Si 





























Direction of Wind 


and Yelocitj (in Italic figui 




nrh h<. 




















- 1 i 


£ 


i|i 


i pm 


pm 1 pm 


,;;„ 


A|A|A|A| S |*|*|i| A 


ll« 


I a^ 


L a 8 m 


,, 


1 


f 4 


T 


w 


^k 


w ssw 


SSW ssw 


ssw 


- f |- r |t|TH,|-.|-.|-. 


t|t 


I I 


1 


« 


5 


Lfl 


7. K 


T 


S | T 


s s i E 


5 i y 


SE : 8 f *? E ? ™ !' 


£ i 


» 1 a 


I 


M 


I 


£, 


.'• 


£ 


J 


- - 


KXK KXK 


kxk kxk 


ENE ESE 


KXK KXK 


E ™ 


KXK 


E £ E 


KXK 


™ KN f 


s? 


3 


T 




XK X, 


S i * E 


NE nne ne ; » *> : ^ nk ne 


T 


KXK 


1r 


*? 


■ff | T 




s 


*? 


NNF 


N JS E -» E 


£ | 2 


XXE XXE 


5? ■? N ? ! ? ,: i ™ 5 


» 


5 


XXK 




M: 


N f 


J 


"7 


7 w 


W»W| NW 


"7 ; "? N ;r 


?l w r « w ™ W n V 


"]> V H 


T 


WSW 




if; 

iV 


ESE 




7 


i 


I 


7 


2 


X 


II 


i 

sw 


I X\V w 
ES* g SSE 


- 




I 


l 


I 


g 


i 


i 


l 


2 


i 


S 1 




8" 


** 


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1 


1 *» : 5, 


E , 7 


W.sW 


"7 


ss £' 


u | * 


% 


^ 


i 


£ 


4 


1. 


BtE 


' 


T 


IT 


,1 5 


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wswjwsw 




5 | To 


- 



The weather at the end of ] 
such a good example of the com 

lead on to a S.E. gale that wo may spend a few moments in 
following them. 

On 24th July barometer stood at 3003, cloudy and cold, with 
westerly winds. 

On 25th, barometer 2996 ; wind and weather similar, barometer 
unsteady and falling fast. 

On 26th, barometer fallen to 2964 ; cloudy with warm W.N.W. 
wind blowing fresh ; and the weather map shows that on the 
south coast, where NVW. winds had prevailed, a change to S.W. had 
set in— in South Australia and Portland— and indications of 
change appeared at Wentworth, where weather looked stormy. 

On 27th, wind had veered to W. here, blowing fresh and cold ; 
at Sydney barometer low and unsteady, and between 2 and f 
one of those peculia 
passage of a cyclone is recorded ■ 
repetition of it between 930 and midnight ; at 3h. 7m. p.m. there 
were a few drops of rain, weather very cloudy. In Victoria, 3 p.m., 
weather wet and squally ; wind south, 48 miles an hour. Baro- 
meter risen to 2968 ; barometers to south rising ; weather 
wet and squally, with heavy sea on the south coast ; barometers 
very low at Sydney audi U of it. 

28th, strong cold W. to W.S.W. wind ; barometer 29'89, and 
generally rising last. 

29th, S. to S.W. winds generally on the weather map ; baro- 
meters all from 3010 to 3030; very heavy sea reported at Gabo, 
and heavy as far as Cape George. By a letter from Mr. Thomas 
Hale, at Bulli, I was informed that this sea began on Sunday 
morning (28th) with a heavy quick swell from S.E. — heavy-looking 
clouds in east— rollers making up a mile from the shore in 7 
fathoms. On 29th the S.E. sea did not follow along the coast, 
but missed Sydney and Newcastle, and at 3 p.m. was reported at 
Port Macquarie. Note to foot of weather map stated that there 
was S.E. gale off the coast. 

30th, barometers all high, 3030 to 3040 ; winds between south 
and west ; very heavy sea along the coast from S.E.,but still not 
home at Sydney, and did not get home here until 4 p.m. ; easterly 
winds reported on the high lands, but by no station on the coast ; 
it was evident thet S.E. wind was blowing overhead, and the sea 
only was coming home. 

On 31st, barometers nearly the same ; heavy sea on the coast ; 
winds westerly, and weather seems to be clearing. During the 
day barometer fell fast, and at 3 p.m. smooth sea at Cape George, 
Sydney, and Newcastle— still heavv to north and south— looks as 
if the easterly gale was nearly over ; but a wry rapid fall of 
pressure was going on at Sydney, and places west of it to Forbes — 



becoming more rapid after 11 p.m., and by midnight a light 
easterly wind with rain bad set in, and looked very like the gale 
coming home On 31st, from Clarence River to ( ape George wind 
had changed to IS T .E. to E. with rain. Still heavy sea in places. At 
Sydney the morning looked very dirty, and barometer fell 018 
by 12-30 pan.,w£< terrific Sower of rain came on. 1 inch 
fell in G minutes, and the weather cleared up from west. 

On August 1st and 2nd, the wind got round to west again, and 
the weather cleared up. 

ISTow, we have in this period just the ordinary changes of wind 
which lead on to a S.E. gale, and the gale was'evidentlv blowing 
hard off the land, but did not come home ; and I believe the 
single reason why it did not is that the westerly wind had more 
power, and kept it in cheek, as it were, so that it spent its force 
to the east of us, recent storms the miles of wind 

on 2Gth was 615, on 27th 7l . and in all the 

examples given of easterly gales which have blown home (see 
tables herewith) we have seen that the westerly winds have 
always been light. Now, my experience of the weather here, and 
especially since the weather' ■ , ; i d, which places 

before us day by day a general view of the weather, is that easterly 
gales frequently blow in tie • aw sea home ; 

while along the coast the S.E. wind is not felt at all, but it 

and on the south <• , ,-i \\< , v , in the' Vccent m >ri^ uhich I 



mve (!■>, 


:ribed (July, 1878) you will observ( 




nd from west by south-west and soutl 


.his is the 


normal way for the wind to veer h 



proving that we are generally in the light or tropical part of the 
current; and as the \ ind veers to outli the barometer rises to 
its maximum ; ai ;. that is in the 

onfcdulterate I , rt. Here the polar current 

is generally from hanged in direction by the 

prevalent westerly winds. J ■ ■ I ak< b j lace, 

if it is to the east of ns the we-ierK winds bh.w over here in full 
force, and tin- south-w, ; a d u« -• "v inds e >u n and supply the 
want. K,nowwi ' west of us, or from some 

cause the tropi- ^ usual force, then the 



illll!!lvli.-1 ■■ 



wind was a-ain in S.K.. barometer falling ; torrents of rain fell on 
27th, wind E. to E.N.E., heavy gales and floods. Barometer 
89*966 on 28th, barometer rose to 33-062, wind S.E., clearing ; 
29th, 30-115, S.E., clearing. So that it appears that during this 
winter when westerly winds were almost absent, there were three 
heavy easterly gales. 





nli-ht". The 




on 1 


Sth, with barometer 


30-400, mo« 


lenue rain, f 


ell, and the wi 




3 not strong, in fact 






all the char. 




tics of S.E. storms, 


they did nc 


»t rise in fore 


b to gales. I 


n Juh 


however the storm 


was severe, 


preceded as 




wind* 


from W. and S.W., 



the barometer <_t On the 9th of July, 1866, 

alight N.W. \vIti.1 was blowing the day was fine with light 

southerly winds; at 0p.m. it was overcast, with rain-like clouds; on 
the 10th, barometer 30-2^2. light westerly winds a.m., light S. in 
afternoon, and light west at night, cloudy, but clearing towards 
t 6-45 p.m. lightning was observed in a bank of clouds 



low down in S.S.E. On the 11th, barometer 30210 and falling, 
wind westerly, in the moaning weather fine ; about one o'clock 
p.m. the wind began to veer from N. through west to S., and _ by 



2-30 p.m. was blowing from S.E. a light breeze of only four miles 
an hour, but it steadily increased hour by hour; weather was 
cloudy, and at 545 p.m. lightning began in S.S.E. and spread all 
over the heavens as the storm clouds came upon us ; by 9 p.m. 
the wind was blowing 21 miles an hour : it was then raining and 
continued to do so all night, with increasing wind, which by 6 a.m. 
of 12th had risen to 40 miles an hour, with gusts of from 50 to 
60 miles an hour ; rain fell in torrents and there was a heavy sea 
all day of 12th ; it blew hard. 30 to 10 miles an hour, during the 
day, the strongest gust being 56 miles per hour ; meantime the 
barometer was falling and stood at 30036, after 9 p.m. the wind 
very gradually backed to S.S.E., and the velocity began to fall, 
and by 9 a.m. of 13th it was S. only 25 miles an hour ; the baro- 
meter rose a little, 30073, and the weather cleared with falling 
barometer on 14th. 

Seyeral obvious and important conclusions come from these 
examples. 1st, we may never expect a dangerous easterly gale 
if the westerly winds are in full force in the winter. 2nd, the 
easterly gale comes on with the wind veering round from "W". 
throughS. 3rd, when tin barometei is vei v high, 30400 and 
upwards, the gale is not strong. The heavy gales come on with 
barometer about 30'200, and are accompanied by thunder and 
lightning usually. 4th, as the barometer falls, the gale clears up 
by hacking to S., and it rarely returns to S.E., but clears up at 
once by returning westerly wind. 

We have another kind of winter storm which may be dismissed 
with very few words, as it seldom is dangerous to shipping and 
is so gradual and well marked in its approach that no careful 
observer will be caught unprepared. I 'allude to the westerly 
gales, which, exc> ; t ii ■ : h e from S.S. Yv\, to S . are the strongest 
we get. but blowing as thev do right off the land, it is only when 
vessels are on the wav front \ew Zealand here that they become 

hard is that an extra supply «.f tr ..pical current has come down 
with its great initial velocity, which, as 1 have shown, amounts in 
the upper currents to 80 miles an hour. A little extra force then 
in the circulation within the tr •:,. - w ' •_-:-,< u- a westerly gale. 












Barometer readings during the "Dandenong" gale, Sept 



Melbourne, for 9Lf 



29*92 


30190 


SO-031 


297*6 


30015 


30-242 


30 046 


29-.J57 






30111 


29 973 


20--S77 






29926 


29'847 




30119 






295MJ 




29833 


2'.rx,r> 




29971 


29-935 


29961 






10-80 


M0-:>i'3 


30-025 


29S:)7 


29S57 


20 J- 


89-662 




2971 I 






29-52.S 


29721 






80*088 




30060 


2H-672 


2D;is2 


29-60 4 



The first note of the chi 
" Agnes Jessie," then on her 
She started on the 3rd Sept 

thence to 8th, fresh W'.X. V 



on September 9th, 
?ind was blowing at 



jlikj souuieny was oiny a pun 01 tne coining siurm, <uiu it ia 
interesting because it shows how difficult it was to displace the 

During the forenoon of the 10th, snow in some places three 
feet thick was lying on most of the western slopes of the Dividing 
Range, proving how fresh the polar current was from cold 
regions, when it could make snow within a few hours of a hot 
wind (for on the morning of the 9th, the same country had been 
covered with a hot wind). The change had begun 13 p.m. on Sth, 
at Portland, and did imt rea.-h Sydney till al'lernoon of 10th, or 
progressed about I'A miles an hour, while the wind velocity was 
50, and the differeiu-e represents the work done iu displacing the 

We have thus traced the polar current from Portland to 

SmokvCape. .< l.oOu , 1: i!es in a straight line, in fact 

the S.'W. wind kept steadily on, following what is evidently the 






:. i - 
windha«i 
wind nea: 



Now following the squa 



BlaekaU," 18 mil 

■b'e.Vthe w.iier v 
r" at Seal Boeks 
ichmond Bivers i 


es nil' Newcastle, 2 a.m. 

ut.hu t's wharf reported 
ween 1 ami 2 a.m., that 
>. a rumhlin- noise, at 
cry much. The squall 


.Vwi'ifas 'in Queensland 



in- ..f the 

.V\\'."with 
; gradually 



lie as the 



or the storm's rate of motion is 20 miles an hour. In the ca 
part of its progress it only made 13 miles per hour, but the 



li.o M;h. 

Ko be- 



Hie vanes or- arrows point to the direction 
fronvwTiieh, the wiml i$ hloyyilia 



PHOTO-UTHOGRAPHED A 




SYDNEY 

WEATHER MAP 



?! DENISOM 



9am Sept. 9. 1876 



NEW CALEDONIA 



SOUTH 
AUSTRALIA 



ssminl 



eunoorC Fresh breeze 
ivLd lightning ett right. 



H) 



n> 



ff Qjrth locking threatening jtc S. 



\ 



HOT and SULTRY 



NEW SOUTH WA 



mcaKJ^jJ 



J0DEim.M 



ORIA 



c fi£ st»l*A at S. 



Wind shitted U $. cthcul 7tWU 





Chiang ett to £. between. *,3Cmm cf 6*- atveL 
750 am. Of 9*~-at Molwrt Tawtv 




m 



> 



^ 



Gulf of 
Carpentaria 



SYDNEY 

WEATHER MAP 




c^yjMEL&OURNE J$W^/tw*. Wind Sat night . 
J0GABO ISLAND 

WILSONS PROMONTARY 




^ 



Gulf of 
Carpentaria 



SOUTH 
AUSTRALIA 




I 



Barograph Sheet, from 9 a.m. November 27, to 9 a.m. November 28, 1877 



- 


|30-30 

ao- to 

28vfifl_ 
2£i£iL_ 



















1 























I 


















S t 

is 

1 

1 i 


1 


i 


i 

1 


CO i or J 

1 

till 


iolent thunderstorm* passing Fall of 0160 in. 
over Sydney, heaviest part in 20 m., or 
over Botany. 0430 in. per 


5 








* 










p 

% 


1 


i 


i 


g 


3 


2 


3 


s 


£ 


S 


g 


S 


i 


i 


Si 







Discussi 








Captain Trotj-] 


rox said 


:— It may 


be naturally 


expected 


from 










connected with 




1 conseq 




had knowh-,'|._ 


p of the 










some remark 


s on the 


i-Xil 




ieful paper read to 3 


r ou by my friend Mr. Ei 












ii rlie 










the wind 






3 them at this hour of the nig 


ht. But 


there 










passing, 1 


rl.at 1 


think would require futu: 


re consideration. One w 




tion of the grad 




the baromi 


3ter. Mr. E 


ussell,"fro 


is, his 


position at the Observato 


ry, has refe 


ri'Cil to the far 


1 that ma: 





Mr. Eussell 



be aware of the south-west wind blowing ahoiit South Australia, 

map. The data, therefore, from which he oVaus his conclusions is 
wanting to make tlrj knowledge practically useful to those whom 
it most concerns ; and it requires that some one should be 
appointed by the Government to watch over this matter and give 
this knowledge to navigators on the coast, so that they might 
know what was likely to be the wind blowing. (Hear, hear.) 
As a navigator on this coast for many vears, 1 have given thi$ 



- 






the weather as in beautiful fine set weather. Whether I am in 
as good n position sheltered !»v the hill as Mr. Eusxcll is in on the 
hill I do not know, but I befieve Mr. Eussell is free to confess 
he even cannot now tell what weather we are going to have to- 
morrow. There is another ozonation I caught as Mr. Eussell 
read his paper,— it was with regard to the black north-east er, " we 

extend south of Cape St. George. I think that these black north- 



;-,:.« 



turning Wilson's Promonto 
weather setting in to the ! 



lfortunato loss of the " Auckland" 
hat one of the Melbourne Steam- 
in beside her ; both ver-sels were 



wind on our own continent. With reg; 
on our coast, Mr. Eussell observes tha 
and others do not. This may possibly 
the gale in the distance does not come ] 



hould bear in mind, — that fresh v,( ■*« riv winds 

>.. a viTv strong southerly vine c;> 

.u will jvn-nnilarly sir at Batemans Bay, where 



Some Facts about the Great Tidal Wave, May, 1877. 
By J. P. Josepiisox, C.E. 



This tidal wave was observed at the l\»!l...win^ places, viz., 
Sydney Harbour, Newcastle Harbour, Ballina. Richmond River, 
(in N.8.W.), Brisbane (Queensland ). Napier, Wellington. Christ- 
church, Akaroa, Omaru, K ait audita. Lvtt leion. and manv other 
ports and bays in New Zealand, Sandwich Islands, South America. 

Sydney Harbour. — The gau-e is lived at Fort Denison. The 
tidal wave of the harbour marked on diagram made its appearance 
on the gauge at ,V2() a.m. on the 11th of May. ls77, and the oscil- 
lations gradually increased to a maximum n't' VI inches, and on the 
13th they died away. The avera-e inlerval was :}-i minutes. 

I may mention that the float of the gauge at Fort Denison is 
placed in a well, and a tube, (5 inches diameter, is connected to 
it from the harbour to let the water in ; diameter of well, 3 feet 
6 inches, but may perhaps be partly stopped with seaweed : the 



u-bour almost at i . : -.. ■ , • 



the extreme ran< 
lowest is 6 feet i 

between lowest .- 
while the averag 



It may bo within the memory of some that between the 15th 
and 20th August, 1868, a succession of waves reached Sydney, 
and were recorded by the self-registering tide-gauge. The 
average interval between the waves was about 25 minutes, and the 

wave to the hollow of the next. It was thought at the time that 

A similar visitation reached us again in August, 1873, but it 
was not ho marked in its character. The If re; istering tide- 
gauge shows that the disturbance began during the afternoon of 
the 15th, and attained its maximum between 1 a.m. and 4 a.m. of 
the 17th ; the great; ■>: oscillat ion. amounting to 5 inches, occurred 
between 3T5 a.m. and 3*33 a.m. of the 17th : tho average interval 
of the waves at this time was 25 minutes ; but the average of 20 
between 8 p.m. and 5-30 a.m., was 28 minutes. The waves could 
not be traced beyond the 18th. (See Sa!irre, Oct., 1873.) 

Newcastle Harbour, situated about CO miles north of Sydney. 
The tidal wave made its appearance on gauge (shown by a full 
line on diagram) at 5"20 a.m. (same; as S\ih]vy) on the 11th 
May, 1877. At the greatest oseill iti m . the wafer fell 31 inches 
in about 10 minutes, 'after which the oscillations gradually died 
away. The average interval between the waves is about 22 
minutes ; the greatest oscillation, 31 inches. The float of gauge 
is fixed in a well, the sides of which are formed of ballast ; an 
ordinary wave washes in and out free'y. This port has a bar 
across the heads, which no doubt helped to break the waves 
before they reached the gauge. 

Ballina, situated about 320 miles north of Sydney Heads. 
This place was also waited with a similar phenomenon: it was 

Brisbane, — Several tidal disturbances have been observed in 
Moreton Bay. No gauge there for information. 

I have no "records of these waves from the Southern Colonies. 

There are two tide-gauges in Sydney Harbour— one at Fork 
Denison. and. the other at Fitzrov Doc!.. 'Cockatoo Island, about 
four (-1) miles westward of the other - and one in Newcastle. Night 
and day are distinguished on the diagrams bv a shading of the 
> night, viz, the snaeo from 6 p.m. till 6 a.m. 



The waves, 

abrupt uphca 


) the true form of the natural wave, altlu 


.si,n,.f 
trace of 
ugh for 


'h- 


ZZJ^^^SS^ 


in the 


the harbour i 


ue to the tidal wave from the Pacific Ocean 


face of 



Table s 
Ti< 


il W-AYV 


e highest and lowest points displayed by the 
n the 11th, 12th, and 13th May, 1877. 


Bate. 


**»■ *X? | 53S? "J Eei ™* a - 


11 May .. 
W " ... 


WL. 


5 7fc Sydney; dotted line. 

5 5 Newcastle; full line, N.W. 

'.'.'.'.'.'. 1 1}- ! Newcastle. 
I 1 11 1 Sv.Iney.' 



New Zealand. 
New Zealand report sii 

cling from the Bluff i 



enr tin ; Ime c me over the thousands of miles in a very 
t time, "and must be similar to the earthquake waves winch 



. ■ 



to 18 inches. The tide p pparenii up and 

sometimes being as much as 15 inches to 20 inches in half as 
many minutes, whilst the ebb was nearly as great. This action 
and reaction stirred the harbour to its depths, and rendered the 
water quite turbid, whilst the vessels at anchor in the stream 
were slewed about bv the changing tide— and once the tide, then 
- 1 nlf cant to ebb. This was 
n happened to be afloat at 
He also timed and Measured one of the pulsations, 
ana lound the rise to be quite 15 inches in about eight (8) 

A tidal disturbance was also noticed at the Heads. The pilot 
said that a strong ebb tide was running at llobart Town Point, 
whilst the vessels at anchor and the lightship were swung at 
flood. He thought it was caused by the heavy sea on the bar. 
From this it would seem that the fluctuations were not closely 
observed at the Heads, which is to be regretted, as they would 

Xapier. 11th. — A special telegram states that there was a great 
tidal disturbance all through last night at (lisborne. This 
morning, at 215, at : \ ebb tide, the tidal wave came over the bay, 
and roses feet above the ton of the hull of the " G-o-a-hcacl." The 



>n Ll» i — sii c hcfoiv S ,,',•! ,<-k tli 
• was noticed, its rise and fall being about 4 feet, and the 
u and reaction occupying about 15 minutes. It - 
nit increasing. At the reclamation worl,<. where the water 
nfined to an incompleted breastwork, the tide rushed in and 
vith a force resembling the tide at the French Pass. 
irisfcfntrch, 11th.— There was a strange tidal disturbance this 
ling in Lyttlcton Harbour. Prom 7 till 1 o'clock the water 
Deen rising and falling in an unusual manner, at limes rising 



nearly dead low, water. 
rce and receded in 5 minutes, the 
d fall being about 8 feet. The waves are coming in at 
Is of about 20 minutes. No damage is reported. 



THE GEEAT TIDAL WAVE, MAY, 1S77. 107 

Oman/, 11th. — A cm-ions tidal phenomena was experienced here 

This continued with more or less variation till noon, when a 
tidal wave came rushing into the bay. A barque broke away 
from her mooring warps at the breakwater, and beiiu,' caught 
in a t current and whirlpool was dashed against the inside 

of the breakwater, and then washed towards the shore, where 
she struck the bottom. Under the able seamanship of the 
harbour-master she got clear and put to sea. Through striking 
the bottom she commenced to leak, and an hour after she put to 
sea she had made a foot of water. The other vessels at the 
wharf were onlv slightly damaged about the rigging, through 
colliding with one another. 
SkUtmgt 



h.-. 


-At 10 . 


3'cloekthiB morning a wave a 


bout 18 


!';;;: 


•u"t^ S( " 


i it. a-ainst the current am; 
This swelling had continued 


11 .mall 




■he effec 


la of the tidal-wave were mi 


ich felt 












B °U he r, 


wharf. 


(New 




















>d from 














id out all day. It rose and fell c 










it l,; 












and fell more than the fir: 




•iV-i 


'I,, iurl 


' Bay. She parted her chai 


ns and 


The 


■ wharf 


is a good deal twisted, but r 


lone of 


imei 


-, while ( 


Tossing Cook's Straits, encoi 


mtered 






>; en ^dipped under water, i 


mcl the 










i-.V 


\'u Joi 


ntisTof M.M.S. " Sappho."— 
wl on May 26th. She was 


11. M.S. 




:'.'i ;';.! 




i'if-r'-ns 



103 THE GREAT TIDAL WAVE, MAT, 18//. 

the greatest rise being about 10 feet. The reef was left quite 
exposed at times, and as the water receded it left millions of fish 
behind it on tbc rocks. The effects were very extraordinary. 
The natives do not recollect anything like it, and they are in a 
great rage — accused the '" Sappho" of bringing the wave. At 
Tonga the wave lifted the stranded ketch " Pearl" right off the 
reef, and left her in deep water, saving a lot of trouble and 

A huge Wave.— On the passage of the Union Company's 
steamer ■' Taranaki" across Cook's Straits on the 25th May (the 
Otarjo Daily Times reports) a huge tidal or blind wave struck her 
fair abeam, poured in volumes over bridge and decks, filled the 
main-deck rail-high, lifted the after starboard bridge boat out of 
the chocks, and clashed it upon the engine-room skylight, and, 
passing over, swept both the post-bridge boats awav, wrenched 
one of the iron davits out of the brackets, and carried away all 
the bridge-rail on the port side. The main body of the sea 
swept over the poop, carrying with it the after skylight, the brass 
head, of the capstan, the wheel and evervthing appertaining to 
it, excepting the bare iron stearing gear ; all the taffrail and 
starboard quarter-rail, with the netting of course, and as the 
quarter-rail went it wrenched away a section of the covering 
board. The force of the sea also burst in four dead-lights of the 
saloon cabins, splintering the thick glass, and in the case of one 
of them drove the fragment ri-ht across the cabin into the 
wooden jalousie partition, fracturing the woodwork. "When the 
after skylight went, tons of water poured into the saloon, flooding 
it over 2 feet deep on the lee side. For a minute or so after the 
sea struck her the " Taranaki" lay like a log in the water, and no 
wonder, weighted as she was with a flooded main deck, but, as 
good fortune ordered, the poop gave way, and through the 
openings thus E< and the steamer 

was once more free and buoyant. It is a remarkable thing that 



The Tidal Wave at Sandwich Inland.— At various places on the 
coast of the Sandwich Island great disturbances of the tide 
(which was felt on the distant coast on 11th May last) were 
observed, but at Hilo the disturbance appears to have reached its 

The tidal wave struck the group of islands on the 10th May, 
between 4 and 5 a.m. The sea suddenly iv •cled, and returned 
with great violence in a wave 1(5 feet hi-h. which entered the 
harbour of Hilo, and swept away the wharf and storehouses in 
front part of the town. 



We are informed by the Honolulu papers that there the 
difference between the highest and lowest water-mark was 36 
feet, and that it rose 13$ feet above half-tide mark. It was the 
severest ocean wave experienced at the Sandwich Islands since 
1837. The destruction at Hilo may thus be summed up :— 
Seventeen people drowned, thirty-seven dwelling-houses entirely 
destroyed, and seventeen badly injured, 1G3 people left destitute 
without homes ; the total damage done at this port is estimated 
at £3,000. Although Hilo has suffered the worst of all the 
Hawaiian ports, the above record of loss gives some idea of the 
aggregate loss the kingdom lias sustained. 

It is remarked by the Hawaiian Gazette, that though the 
volcano Kilane had been active about that time, there had been 
no e 1 j k tl e e I it was concluded that the upheaval 
of the coast had occurred on the west coast of South America. 
A captain who had arrived from Samoa has given some informa- 
tion respecting the earthquake wave at Upolo, Navigator's Group. 
He states that the wave was felt at 330 am. on the 11th May, 
and from that time the water washed out and into the harbour 
until 3 o'clock in the afternoon. Sometimes the harbour seemed 
to be empty. There was not much damage done. 



of Valparaiso there was no loss of life or destruction of property 
bv theear.houak, I ,-, n Valp , d<o : md I, 15 livian frontier. 
Shocks were more severe at WnvdefagaMa. in Bolivia. No 
lives were lost, but tiie damage to property is estimated at 
500,000 dollars. It is said that the towns of felama, Chinehia, 
and San Pedro lune entire!', disappeared. 

On May 12th a hi, , , Loudon slated that the town of 

Iquiqu", on the \\ nuL.i ceast had heen destroyed by an earth- 
quake. Iquique is a sea-port town in the department of Arequipa, 
Peru, and near the port is a.n island famed for its guano deposits. 

Subsequent news told us that the earthquake took place on 
May 9th, and on .! ul v lit h a London telegram said the damage 
done amounted to 20,000,000 dollars, equal about £ 1 oOO.OOO. 

The distance between Svduev and Iquique U about 7.000 miles. 

The Liverpool J!i,h>n. "20th May, says :—" The tidal wave 
which lately caused so nm h destruction at iquique extended its 
ravages to other portions of the western coast of South America, 
and a telegram from Valparaiso announces the total destruction 
of no less than seventeen vessels on the Peruvian coast, whilst 
forty more have been more or less seriously damaged. Of those 



110 THE GHEAT TIDAL WAVE, MAT, 1877. 

lost fifteen are known to have been laden with guano j and it is 
probable the remaining two were. The total loss of property is 
estimated at nearly £300,000. The following are the names of 
the vessels lost laden with guano, viz. : — 

( The " Alida," an American ship. 

The " Drot," a Norwegian ship. 

The " E. F. G-abain," a Dutch ship. 

T , ■, The " Lady Belleau." an Bullish barque. 

Loaned | Thg M Unc]e Toby » an American ship. 

V vTll ^ " 1 '' " '■ 1!i,:l ^ ,,r,: Witch," an English ship. 



The " Couri 



up. 

i 



I The " Shamrock," an English s 
lj' Coquimbo." 
Loaded (The " Avonmore," an English ship, 
at Huan- < The " Conference," an English ship, 
illos. ( The " Conway Castle," an English ship. 

The Earthquake or South America axd Great Tidal 



and destruction caused on the South Pacific coast by the earth- 
quake and tidal wave of May 9th. The towns of Arica, Iquique, 



Copilla, Cobija, Mijillones, De Boliva, Antopagasta, and Cha- 
narabal, are nearly destroyed. About GOO lives were lost. The 
destruction of Paballoa is estimated at £5,000,000. The des- 
truction was confined mostly to the coast, although the town of 
Tarapaca 23 miles inward, and the villages of Poeomattalia and 
Conejonas, far in the interior, were more or less ruined. The 
shipping of guano in the s mtln mi <Ioj osits will be indefinitely 
suspended, as all facilities in the way of launches, chutes, 
wharves, water-condensers, and buildings of all kinds have been 
swept away. The destruction of and damage to the shipping 
have been very great, and attended by very serious loss of life. 
At Mollendo the railway was torn up by the sea 300 feet, and 



and 4 miles of embankment of the railway melted away like 
sand; locomotives, cars, and rails, were hustled about like so 

many playthings, and left in a tumbled mass of rubbish. 



of 1868. 

marine cable office, hotel, British Consulate, steamship agency, 
and many private dwellings. Thieves began to rob, when the 
troops fired upon them, killing and wounding several. 

Destruction or Iquique. 
Iquique was built of wood, and tumbled down at the first 
onset. Lamps were broken, and the burning oil, spreading over 
the debris, started a general conflagration. Three companies of 
firemen were instantly at their po-ts. although it was difficult to 
maintain an upright position, shock following shock with dread- 
ful regularity. To procure water, the two host fire-engines were 
stationed at the beach. .Just then the cry arose— "The sea, the 
sea!" and the waves rushed in ; the engines were carried away 
by the reflux, and the fire continued unsuppressed. Three 
elements of destruction wen- husv at one moment— fire, water, 
and earthquake. The affrighted people left the city to its fate, 
flying to the neighbouring eminences. The fire destroyed a 
large portion of the town, the earthquake levelled nearly all the 

The water condensers along the shore are ruined. Nearly 
400,000 quintals of nil rate at Iquique and the adjacent poi ' "* 
Molle and Pisaque were destroyed. A small loss of life 



place 


, probably ti 


?n (10) 


persons 


in all 


. Coastin- 


r crafts and 




boats in the 












Panq 


ms, eleven (LI) miles 










The splendid n 








a Neura C 


'arolina, was 


comp 


h'tely des-ne 


red. 










Th 


e sufferings o 




mlc of I, 


[Uique 




». Absence 


Of u; 






lion of 






res added to 


their 








lamage done in Iquique 


will :, 


-mount to ne 


*rly £80 


0,000. 












Other 


Towns 


DESTROTED. 




Laml 


mage to Shi 

ing Deposit. 


CTa 


u, i" iv ;.'' 


li 


Pica, with 
mo cutting 


at Guano 

lot) houses. 








[ftboc 


i-erswerehu 


ried. by the fallin 


gearti 


i. Among 





the havoc is terrible. The town of Tarabaza, two or three 
lea-ues inland, ami the vilhi-cs of Pica, Matella, and Conehones, 
were more or less ruined. The loss of life is reported small. 
The earthquake was especially severe at Chanenoogo. The 
earth opened 15 metres in depth, and the whole surface of the 
ground changed. At least 2(H) were killed. The bodies were 
floating in the bay. At Huanillas, the guano-loading station, 
the damage inlliete'd was tearful. The wave which succeeded the 
earthquake, and completed the work of destruction, was nearly 
sixty (60) feet in height. Many vessels were lost here, together 
with several of those on board. At Mijillones the tidal wave 
was 65 feet in height. Two-thirds of the town is completely 
obliterated. At Tecopilla little or nothing remains of the town. 
A mine called La Pena Bianca, four (4) miles to the southward, 
sank, smothering 200 workmen, forty of whom were Cornish 
miners. Cobija, the principal town on the Balactian coast, has 
lost three-fourths of its houses. 

Belief for the sufferers.— As soon as this lamentable intelli- 
gence reached- Lima, the Government chartered a steamer, and 
organised a relief commission, loaded a vessel with provisions, 
together with 50,000 gallons of water, and 
• on the 16th for the South ; 100,000 soles in silver 
2d part of her cargo, to be distributed among the 
unfortunates by a commission of engineers accompanying the 
expedition. It has been urged by the Government to recotn- 

greater security and more remote from shore, since this is the 
second instance of a similar calamity to the positions occupied. 
Subscriptions are being made at Lima and Callao for the relief 
of the distressed. The northern ports of Peru are damaged 
but little, though the sea was running remarkably high. 

The shock at sea.— The captain of the steamer " John Elder" 
reports that when 23 miles west of Antapagosta, going at full 
speed, the ship was completely stopped by the shock of the 
earthquake, and she remained almost stationary for five minutes. 
The passengers believing she had struck on a reef, soundings 
were taken immediately, but no bottom was found. 



nnsidcrably a full third part of the whole 
nerican Andes, the shock was felt with the 
volcanoes found with 



>lhing. Ai-.. 
spatched lie 



Cordilleras arc thought to have some influence in causing the 
disturbances which are by no means uncommon in these regions ; 
and Humboldt states that the shock which devastated Riobamb* 
m 1797 was so great that he found on the summit of La Culca 
the skeletons of scores of the inhabitants who had been flung 
vertically into the air, and alighted on the hill referred to, on the 
opposite bank of a small river to that on which the town was 
built. 

When these terrific earthquakes occur near the coast they are 
invariably followed by an upheaval of the water, which assumes 
the shape of a tidal wave of greater or less magnitude, and in 
more instances than one the tidal waves have proved infinitely 
more disastrous than the earthquake. One case, for the sake of 
example, will serve to demonstrate the magnitude of such a wave 
as that which razed to the ground the city of Arica. An eye- 
wit nos* thus describes what he saw o\' it : — "While passing towards 
the hills, with the earth shaking, a great cry went up to heaven. 
The sea had retired. On clearing the town. I looked back and 

a few minutes the sea stopped, and then arose* a mighty wave 
fifty (50) feet high, and came in with a fearful rush, carrying 
everything before it in terrible ma jest v. The whole of the 
shipping came back, speeding towards ineviiablo doom. Inafew' 
minutes everything was completed— every vessel was either on 
shore or bottom upwards." 

M. Boussingault observes that in the \icinitv the trembling of 
the earth is almost incessant, but this he ventures to attribute in 
part at least to the immense falling masses of rock that have been 
fractured bv disturbances ii 



In the July number of Frazer's Magazine for 1S70, a lengthy 
account is given of the greatest sea-wave that is reported to have 
ever occurred, and the effects of which we observed were percep- 
tible in Sydney. Its origin, the course which it pursued, and 
other minutiae respecting it, served as subjects for scientific 
research by savans for mam- months, and two Ccrnian geo- 
graphers, Professor Von rlochstctter and Her Von Tschudi, 
wrote papers about the wave, and disclosed various facts that will 
prove of service to those who take an interest in this branch of 
science. Mr. Proctor's opinion is that -the progress of the 

Peruvian shores in Lm;s. and propa-atl-d ,.\ n- the whole of the 
Pacific Ocean, differs ah, .-ether from anv earthquake phenomena 
before observed. Other earthquakes have indeed been followed 

terrestrial motions, oas'tosu--, tthi id. a that they have been 
caused by the motion of the sea bottom, or of the neighbouring 



ti.M-u.n. MO 
mil-boats eal 

submerged, 



The wave pas 

aliug depot of the mail-1 






'as partly Wa 
Mallet, who is regarded as an authority 



t and steep, while 



! 






~~~ 


J 


&43r _: 


WMZ^--. - 


=t== 




- 






3 

5 
as 

H 

on 







o ^ 



H 1 
^ | 

3 

—3 
W 



-1 r 




Some Results of an Astronomical Exper 
the Blue Mountains. 
% IT. C. Russell, B.A., E.B.A.S., T.M.S, 

[Read before the Royal Society of N.S.W., 6 November, 



It lias lonnr i )Cen my intention to make an astronomical experi- 
ment on the Blue Mountains. Four years since, when sekvtins; 
the transit of Venus stations. I made a hurried trip to Woodford, 



^.••t , tlH'air : l,M-in-' , iliV«! 

'M'tli of wniVu-— lU^al'h '!■ 
that could be desired, I four!, 

:lv »il I''!- star-work 

I lilted now narhVnlnrlv 

the lines between" the l)''v, 
There were also several '.lit! 

m^^^Tlun-e^tvs!^; 
<nir air currents I wished to 
desir e that this Colony shoul 
, . Tlu ' pi'es^iujr astronomical 
thinixbedonebv- -oin- on th 
of telescopes whieh are too 



•luster !•, •' 

^•'l-i,h. w,,ss,l,!;il l„ 
^■iins instruirents wore 
V '. ;ls 'iiHiii-n.vd bv the kin 
his oo,iiitr% 

me to encuml 

1 ''--^''' that i t ,st . v, ! 
to go, and I was then sun 



: left Sydney on the ev< nir.14 <■' the l">rh. On the morning 

ntdrj was op and j parte of the ins 

it were in their places. Out he second day we were able 



Mor 



it was considered the 
a.m. of the 17th Octo 



t, as these results 
of London, and at 



spectra 



'8 had been taken, the micrometer 

ere (•(Minted \\ here only twenty had I 



there is a -real men as 
fully ten times thicker 



jeen led t 



i D 3, and at sunset 
t line of light sepa- 



o-dav, I noticed i 



effect of contrast. Mr. Hii 



WitllvaveVUthis'hiki!. 

and it is worthy of note that ">siH is the position of one oft 






120 SOME RESULTS OF AN ASTRONOMICAL EXPERIMENT 

The fourth line from D 1, that is the line always there, seems 
to get wider at sundown wil •> «" as the others 

do, as if it were a double line, or that anotln r air-line appeared 
alongside of it. I have several times suspected that it was 
double, and now I am almost sure of it. D 3 at sunset nearly 
equal D 2, and the two are only separated by the faintest streak 
of light. 

9-25 a.m. on the 21st, I can see all the eight lines between the 
Ds faintly ; mon by, and a good deal of cloud 

about, especially in the direction of the sun. llh. 10m. r the air 
lines are rapidly fading ; line 4 does not seem changed, but the 
others are more or less invisible. 

Measures of the lines between the two Ds mean of three taken 
at Woodford, on the afternoons of li>th October, 1878, 4 p.m., 
and 21st October, 5-10. The measures are taken from line to 
line, and represent parts of the micrometer. The whole distance 
Dl to D2 is covered by 2"655r parts of the micrometer :— 
Dl 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 D2 D3 
| -33G | "366 | -360 | -356 j -20. r ! \ -25C j 2P,3 [ -31(1 | -131 | "201 | 

nber that, when I 
D line before you last year, 
'. produced a copy of Dr. Hu^ins's drawing of the D lines at 
Oxford, and those of Colonel Campbell at London. Since then I 
have received from Dr. Unguis a more complete and perfect 
copy of his drawing of the lines between the Ds and it is inte- 
resting to com pa L here; there is very little 
similarity between his drawings and mine. From Mr. Hilger. 

theDs; unfort; urare of these. 

These facts point clearly to the conclusion which I brought be- 
fore you, viz., that our atmosphere contained much less of that 
absorptive matter, whatever does the atmo- 

sphere of Englan owing the prover- 

bially clear atmosphere of our western hills, 1 was the more 
anxious to test this question of purity by means of the large 



ilvasmallfr 
ch detail wo 



I would, 






days (three and a half only available for the purpose), and I 
could of course only take a small part ; but it may very fairly 

be taken as a sample of the- whole, and there can, I think, be no 
doubt that the cause of these lines is water vapour, and that if 
any of the twenty-four lines which arc visible in London are due 
to ^ases which are the product o\' manufactures we in Svdnev have 
so far not contaminated the air in this way ; for the lines visible 
in Sydney are likewise visible upon the mountains, when there is 

to be forgotten to see in the splendid definition of the mountain 
air, the clear solar spectrum, and then, as the day waned, line 
after line coming into view as if drawn with a pen, and getting 
blacker and more defined as the sun neared the horizon. The line 
which I have called D 3 is a wonder. At midday it is a fine thin 



Ca to D 1, : 


' 


at Woodford. I c 


annul - 


ot yet been : 


mapped _ 


in Sydney. It is 




How many 


would be found in it m 




towards sui 


iset the lines seemed aim 





122 SOME KESTTLTS OP AK ASTEONOMICAL EXPERIMENT 

It was just before and after sunset that the air seemed so 
perfectly steady ; later in the evening there was a little motion, 
but it was nothing like so much as I had seen when on the 
mountains in the winter of 1874. 

I had selected some sevi >l of the observ- 

ing quality of the mountain air, and when I turned the telescope 
to the stars I was not disappointed. The companion to Eigel 
has recently been found itself to be a double star by one of the 
keenest of American observers ; he was led to think it was double 
with a telescope of G inches aperture ; but it required all the 
power of one of 18 \ inches to place the matter beyond question. 
You may judge, therefore, that we looked for this closest of 
known double" stars with considerable interest on the first avail- 
able night, and the old 7 J-inch telescope fully maintained its first- 
class character. We used a power of 800 (the highest I had) 
with advantage, and directly I looked at the companion to Rigel 
I saw it elongated, and it appears so with all powers over 400. 
It was evident that the components were unequal, the smaller 
one following ; independently Mr. Hirst and myself observed it, 
and agreed in assigning the position angle of 61°, and in moments 
of best definition, for at midnight tin' air was not so steady as it 
was at sunset, the star seemed to me clearly divided with a mag- 
nifying power of 800, though I am sure the distance cannot be 
more than one quarter of a second. As proof of the definition, 
it may be mentioned that under such a high power Rigel presents 
a hard and clearly defined disc. 

On the 20th he was again examined, and Mr. Fairfax inde- 
pendently made the angle the same ; there could therefore be no 
question as to what it was, and I was not a little surprised to 
find, on reference to Mr. Burnham's position, that he made it 
179°. This is very remarkable. I am confident the result at 
Woodford is as correct as such an observation can be, and I have 
confirmed it with the large telescope in Sydney. If Mr. Burn- 
ham's observations are right, then we shall have a most won- 
derful double star, as well as the most difficult known, for his 
observations were made in February and March, 1878, this year, 
and our observations point to a change of angle of 115°. The 
distance as estimated cannot be more than a quarter of a second. 



Herschel's double 5326 cannot b 
1 the place he assigns, and there 
italogue, which is probable, or a di 

5:!2l> jii I lerschei's catalogue \va 
lairuit mlc less than he estimated tl 



> round; there is in 
nust be either a n 


>such double 


! examined, the stars are i'ullv a 


lotting about col, 


st- ; Tn le is 
ould be 312° 



veil. 


m, and the c( 


»ni|):ii 




,T-1V 


! On Vh 


1 d, 


seovered a ve 








;tar. K.A. 


tn'» : 


-— '. large one 




. 


blue 




2!):> 


11'. Thiswa, 






it Woodford, wl 


i>eai 


L'.itul object \vi 








then 


I 'i :s . i' s 7- : v 


andr 


,n U le 12SS 


V-l. 





■ 



1 :-ll MlM I 






a.»t yet their" heisWw 
ibout 11 a.m. thn _' m :•« i- i;.r \ ,4. an altitude of 



200 feet. i 

some 300 feet was attains], with wind from W.N.W , 
suddenly the wind dropped,— another proof that these w'< 
local eddies in which we had been trying to raise the k 



or no elect r 
leaf electro 



i»<\ r>s72 n. 



fe — 



I 

I * 

I I 



II 



aU— 



? 



53 



m 

m 




I c 



v <s s; 



On the Metallurgy of Nickel and Cobalt 
By W. A. Drxo.v. P.C.S., M.I.C. 



Shortly after the discovery of the large deposits of nickel and 
cobalt ores in New Caledonia I turned my attention to tho 
metallurgy of these metals, and began this research with a view 
to improvements in their extraction, keeping in view the fact 
that here the reagents usually employed in their extraction aro 
i ■ x i ■•; ■< ■« 1 i n g 1 y expensive. 

The sources of nickel, pivvioiislv to the discovery of these 
deposits, consisted chiefly of speiss, the residue from "the manu- 
facture of smalt, which contains from six to eight per cent, of 
nickel and three of cobalt, and a few pyritous ores containing 
copper and nickel. Tho details of the processes used for the 
extraction of the metal from the former arc jealously guarded 

general outline, to fuse the speiss uith tlnor-snar and" chalk to 
remove part of the iron and obtain an enriched matt. This matt is 
ground, thoroughly roasted, to expel arsenic and sulphur and con- 
vert the metals into oxides, whiehare then dissolved in hydrochloric 
acid. The solution is diluted with water, any ferrous chloride 
converted into ferric chloride by a solution of hypochlorite of 
calcium, and the iron precipitated 1 > v the cautious addition of 
milk of lime, any arsenic tx me time. Sul- 

phureted hydrogen is* then \ to precipitate 

copper, and from the clear solution cobalt is precipitated by 
hypochlorite of calcium, and afterwards the nickel by milk of 

It seemed probable that the nickel in the New Caledonian ore, 
occurring as it does in serpentine, might have been deposited 
irom an acid solution percolating through the magnesian rocks, 
and that if this process could be reversed tho nickel might he again 

-ride at various 
temperatures was therefore tried, but minute quantities only of 
nickel were dissolved, though in every case distinct traces were 
obtained. 



ew of taking advantage of the 



each piece seemed converted into a g< 
was readily dissolved out by hot water, 
only an average of 362 per cent, of nic 
containing 10GG per cent. The soluti 
and magnesium chlorides in small qui] 
calculating the metals as dry chlorides, 
Ferric chloride, traces. 



rtof the metal was in more mti- 
■a than that extracted ; so with a 
different portions of the residue 
ith hydrogen, eoal gas, and finely- 






some parts of it small bril 

Tlu.se wcto highly nn-nrtic. 
oxide, and probablv Contai 
wbole or greater part of t 



tube, oil 



thorough calcination 

; was difficult to determine when the calcinai inn had been carried 
far enough, as the presence of copper and nickel obscured the 
usual reaction for ferrous oxide. It was found, however, that by 
treating a sample from the inulHe wilh hydrochloric acid until 



i solution was effected, cautiously mixing with 
: of sulphuric acid, boiling to expel 



ual bulk of sulphuric acid, boiling to expel the hydro- 
cnionc acid, and adding to the cooled solution a crystal of 
potassium nitrate, the characteristic brown colour was rapidly 
developed as long as ferrous sulphate was present. 

As speiss was actually the substance under treatment, it was 

which are generally contained in it. A speiss was therefore 
made with ore and" various residues, and after calcination was 
found to contain 41 per cent, of oxide of nickel with the oxides 
of iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, and arsenic. These oxides treated 
as before yielded in a flask attached to the outlet a solution con- 

and the residue on boiling with water a solution containing nickel 
and cobalt with a small <jiiantit\ of iron. The insoluble residue 

copper as cuprous chloride, which could lie removed 1>\- a solution 
of salt. 

It now renin • :. of iron in the 

solution from the nickel and cobalt and these metals from each 
other, and it seemed desirable to do so without adding fixed 
reagents. It was found that this could he done by passing 
chlorine into the solution until all the iron was in the form of 
ferric chloride, and then adding to the boiling solution successive 
email portions of anhydrous oxide of nickel, which dissolved, 
precipitating the iron as a basic chloride. The precipitate was 
dense, and contained a small quantity of oxide of nickel added 
in excess. From a neutral solution containing ferrous chloride it 
waa also found that manganese dioxide completely precipitated 
the iron without a trace of nickel or cobalt. 

_ On adding to the hot iron free solution rather more oxide of 

chlorine into it, the whole of the coba wis !n ipitated as 
cobaltic oxide, and a pure green solution of chloride of nickel 
obtained. This solution evaporated to drvm -s and ignited in 
a current of steam evolves hydrochloric acid, and leaves~oxide of 
nickel, which may be reduced in the usual manner. The chloride 
could also be reduced directly to metalic nickel by igniting in a 
current of hydrogen ; and in the case of a solution containing 



in:'t''.;. : . 
rertun-.i I, 
wasluni:. 



1 






1 






1 


j] 


j 


ll 
II 




J^ 










3 


5 












1 





Li:; 



Tlic Deep Well Waters of Sydney. 
By W. A. Dixox, F.C.S., FXC. 



Royal Society of N.S.W.. 2 Ociola; 1S7S.] 
AVater Supplv for Sydney bv moans of 



encourage a 



AVaverlev. analys 



< p:-tiv 






S.-nru at IVavrrley. 

um ... 1 00 grains per gallon. 



946 „ 






Chloridi 


sodium 


Loss on 


ignition 




:otal solid.-, 


This sai 


nplc of waft 


organic 




The b 


r^l™ 


supply i 


, 


- 


'that-nS,: 



stn\,(' f " ' ' l "'"' i,S -"rt 

original' levi i ,1 ,_ „! r< ri I "week it gradually 

Quite lately Mr. I'wuhnan has i„]d in.- that ;iiV-r several months 
continuous'pumping the water does not rise within 30 feet of its 
«!. on the pumpa being stopped. 



Carbonate of calcium 
Oxide of iron ... 
Chloride of calcium 



„ potassiui 

Sulphates 



on ignition 
Total solids 



>idue blackened slightly on ignition, 



per day, and with this draught a considera 
clay was pumped up. The clay is of a gray 
tained a trace of carbonate of calcium ; it w; 
microscope for diatomacea\ &c, with negative 
continuous pumping, the water gave indieatic 
fcoincwhat in character ; so a sample drawn c 
was analysed, and gave — 

Oxide, f iron ' ... traces! 



„ potassium . 

Loss on ignition 

Total solids . 

Total chlorine . 
The residue blackenec 
and ammonia was not i 



This 

that tin- 



es of iron, and it se 


ems likely 


)le was due to partic 




left adhering to the 


bore. It 




ituents of 


ount of chlorine, whi 


eh showed 


he first. To see \v] 


tether any 




rularly for 


tcrmined and also tl: 


.e free and 




) found to 


le results of this examination, 


per gal Inn, and the 


ammonia 



Chloride 



lc quantity of u itei - ' tn > .! 1. at tl - <lt , * , ' t n x insufficient 
: their use, and the Sugar ( .. mi >; •. La , > a ,. d an almn- 
nt supply at a greater depth, boring was recommenced, and at 



5th February- 
Carbonate of calcium ... I 20 grains per gallon. ( Deposit on 
Qxitteofiron ... traces. ' (boiling, 4-20 



Chloride of „ ... 

sodium ... 15 

„ potassium... h 



This wr 
^■illnnsp,. 

yield of tli 



The bore, in the cases under consideration, opened a new 
outlet for the water, and allowed more water to rise through it 
than the crevices supplied, and therefore a slight flow was 
established from the sea to the bore along the old channel. 

If this theory was correct, the ratio of the chlorine to the free 
and albuminoid ammonia in sea water should be the same as 
that observed in the increase of these constituents in the well 
water. To determine whether this was the case, a sample of sea 
water was obtained from Lavender Bay at high-water spring 
tide, 1 

3 of chl 



pumping), would require 1 part of sea water to 228 of the 
original water ; 2 c.c. therefore of sea water was added to 456 
c.c. of Sydney water, and the free and albuminoid ammonia 
determined in the mixture, with the following result : — 



012 parts pel 



Average of six determina- 
tions, in March and April, 
1878, in water from bore. . . 0325 



Average of six determinn-) 
tions, March and April, > U 
1878 ... ) 



repetition uave 



these could only reach the I 
the water percolated throng" 
would doubtless be retains 



fact that the water-level now remains so many feet below its 
original height militates against the above h\ pothesis. and is not 
easy of explanation in any way unless 1lie original outlet is 
getting slowly silted up. in which case we might expect the 

September) this has not occurred. The water, being originally 
higher than sea-level, would onlv represent the head required 

length. 

Everthing indicates, hoi 

of water is available inth 
that the total quant it v ot 



1 the bore- 



Sydney water 374 grains per galloi 

Surface spring 646 „ „ 



Sugar Company, 427 „ 4545 „ 

This considerable increase of salts in solution would be objec- 
tionable for most domestic purposes, and probably on boring 
deeper the waters of the coal-beds would be obtained. These 
waters in this country are generally charged with mineral 
matter, so much eo as to render them useless, so far as they hare 



Mage 



x.-Kiijilc, t hroe different 1 



Loss on ignition 

Total solids... 
of which 5-45 grains v 

Alumina 

( IMoride of sodium . 

Silica' 

Sulphuric oxide 
Phosphoric ,, 
Loss oil ignition 

Total solids... 
of which 1399 grains 



Soda ... 
Potash... 

Chloride of I 



Phosphoric „ 
Sulphhydric acid 

Lo.-s (.a ignition 

Total solids 

of which 2'..* I 



> i 1 1 ~ i > 1 111 - U • ;li 

No. 2. 



11040 

s2-s:: 



vaporation. 
? per gallon. 



26890 

3 insoluble after evapi 



methods, and he did not know whether samples "had heen kept 
by Mr. Poolman. 

lOOfeet and no samples Lid been keptjmt from that depth he 
had samples in his possession. At 100 feet the rod passed 
through a bed of soft sand, and they fully expected to obtain 
water there, but did not. At the greater' depth the rock had 
much the appearance of Bath-brick. 

Mr. Hi Mti- had examined some of the samples brought up 
at the NTewinsri I them to be carhoniferona 






for brewing w^That' it dill nn' contain 

the heat heci ii lijhiufv.'.'i/d'! ■'. mi 
of total solids. 

The Eev. J. E. Tenison-Woods s; 
iferous fossils brought up by the borin< 
did not know whether they had come 01 
like to know what the character of the 
as found in the coal borings. 

Mr. Dixon said that he had not seei 
the coal boring at Xewington. but in a 
under his observai m the .h >er thee s 



t a\ed J but this had not been t 



Note on Huan Island Guano. 
. Dixon, F.C.S., F.I.C., Lecturer on Chemistry, 



In a paper which I read before the Society on the guano deposits 
of Maiden Island, and which was published in the Society's 
Journal, Vol. XI, I observed that the deeper layers of guano 
were invariably richer in calcium p!;o>phaic than those nearer the 
surface, and that although I had made numerous experiments I 
was unable to account for this difference. I have lately had a 

bofNei 

, and. although 
uch larger pro- 
us ch - The 



organic matter ranges in many of the samples between 20 
and 25 per cent., and although somewhat nitrogenous it is 
evident that much of it is of vegetable origin — all the samples 



portion of organic matter tha 

and although somewhat ni 
Df it is of vegetable origin— r 
eotitained earhonate of calcium varying in amount from a little 
over 2 to 10 per cent. ; and it is therefore surprising to find 
that in most cases they have a strongly acid reaction, and that 
this is due to free phosphoric acid or ac'id calcium phosphate. 

The guano effervesce* slightl\ on i he addition of water, and it 
was therefore attempted to get "rid of this action of the acid on 
the carbonate of calcium by treating with dilute earhonate of 
ammonium, the phosphoric acid being determined in the solution, 
which was of a dark brown colour. It was found, however, on 
adding magnesia mixture to the solution and allowing it to stand, 
that dark warty crystals were deposited with the ammonio mag- 
nesian phosphate. These proved to be the magnesium salt of 
some organic acid, as on treating the ignited precipitate with 
sulphuric acid and re-igniting, its weight was more than doubled, 
from the formation of magnesium sulphate. 

It seemed probable that the crystals might be one of the 

fVruvian guano, and 1 had o bflOTTft d that the t ; 

the plants growing on a guano inland were leaded with raphides 

chloride of <_ il i tic acid, a light 

flocculent precipitate only was obtained readily soluble in 



The amount of carbon dioxide evolved from the ash o£ the 
guano was also found to bo slightly greater than that from the 
guano itself, showing the presence of an organic calcium salt. 
Thus, three samples gave as the mean of several closely approxi- 
mating determinations : — 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 
Carbon dioxide in the ash calculated ) ^..h, ^^ 150 
as original guano ... ... ) 

Carbon dioxide in the raw guano ... 417 T27 112 
The limited quantity of material at command has prevented 
further research on this point for the present. 

As the carbonate of ammonia method failed, portions of the 
guano were mixed with a little hot water, transferred to a filter 
and rapidly wash d with successive small quantities of hot 
w T ater, the total washings being about 75 c.c. for 5 grm. The 
solution was slightly yellow only, and was treated with oxalate of 
ammonium and acetic acid to remove a trace of calcium, and the 
phosphoric acid determined as magnesium pyrophosphate with 
the following results from different samples, the first three being 
from one island and the other two from another, the total 



4 32-14 0-42 2-47 

5 3463 063 229 

It appears as if the organic matter protected the calcium 
carbonate to some extent from the action of the phosphoric acid, 
so that it may be washed out, and thus occasional showers of rain 
would carry it dow^n into the lower layers of the guano beds 
where the organic matter has been removed by slow oxidation, 
and there convert the carbonate into phosphate. As each 
successive layer of guano passed through this acid stage in the 
gradual decomposition of the organic matter and passage from a 

calcium phosphate and a still smaller quantity of calcium in 

.aiiuii to its residual form of " phosphate and 

carbonate of calcium, the layers below would thus continually 

ho,-,,i. lt - .-nri.-h.-d i.i ph.-pliati-. The small quantity found 

cannot be taken as :i measur, „i ill. tot .1 1 available, as it is 

probably euni'med to a thin layer at one time, with which other 
layers had been mixed in the samples examined. 



The Rise and Progress of Photography. 
By Ltjdovico W. Haet. 



In glancing throu 


gh the 


world's histor 


to the present t 




find that ea 


marked by one o 






forth the energy 


,fchn 


r and refined 


benefit the great 


l"mii!\ 


>f nations: ;m 


so great and important 






ith the other in impo 


so beautifully an 






become old by th 


•d iff.,'! 


Mice of the :il, 



grapliv. Su 


v aiiTm:irvcl 


this aft-sciei 


ce. and like - 






been at wor 


c in many plac 






Nor is its 


nfluence less t 


scientifically 




history of th 






.ri-imilors. I 


riS 


•§:!:;;£ 



146 THE EISE 

I propose dividing im pnpi.T int ) two parts— firstly, the history 
and progress of photography : secondly, its practice and applica- 
tions. Intrachi_ 

win.' Lden or fortuitous, but which has been 

gained by deep stu 1, and. ''• r p it< 1 in 1. ' • iiud two prominent 



ich other as soul to body. These are repre- 
etaneea ^hirh have from time to time been 
nder the influence of white light, and the 
by chemical and optical research. We will 
apliy came into existence and to whom we 



mt-t.-ilii-.. 

Tcphai-n;' 

supposed 1 






[ propose to the philosophers of our days." 



OP PHOTOGRAPHY. 147 

Both England and France have laid claim to be the cradle of 
this giant baby, and both count: u - ha\ , ! , .1: the same claim 
to its rapid development, for although France has the honor of 
having brought most of the experiments, both in its earliest and 
later stages, to a practical issue, yet the names of Herschell, 
"Wedgewood, Davy, and Fox Talbot will always hold a prominent 
place wherever the history of photography is proclaimed. 

The mention. fche camera obscura or dark 

chamber is the earliest reliable record we have concerning the 
future discoveiy of the invention of photography. It was dis- 

Hected upon the 
white walls of his cell through a hole in the shutter, became the 
means of giving to the world a pie -nig and as it lias since proved 
a valuable instrument. 

The next thing we have record of is the chloride of silver, 
called by the alchemists " horn silver" from its peculiar appear- 
ance. This mineral is still occasionally found in some parts of 
Germany, an. ; i ■ a > pect. white in colour, 

which changes ■ ; isttre to white light. In 

1777. just 233 years abler [Win'* dbcoverv, the learned Scheel, 
a native <>F Sweden, experimented with this substance in another 
form, and remarks that paper prepared with chloride of silver 
and exposed to light tin is d x m ] i . n ' i gb produced many 



orange, and red portions. I 
mented with the nitrate an 
pictures and writing on glass i 



148 THE EISE AXD PEOGKESS OP 

great Josiah Wedgewood. "Wedgewood and Davy became great 
friends, and for some time continued their researches together. 
They produced many beautiful copies of drawings, leaves, lace, 
and such like tilings, but alas, their lie, nil it'ul discovery was only 
of partial value, for a new difficulty now presented itself : the 
beautiful pictures obtained with so much trouble and patience 
when exposed to daylight gradually darkened all over. 

"We must now pass over a few years, during which time we 
occasionally hear of various experimenters using the different 
salts of silver as their predecessors had done; among them may 
be mentioned Seebeck, Guy Lussac, Draper, Eitter, and Wollas- 

In 1814, we find the celebrated Niepce likewise engaged in 
prosecuting a series of studies in this new light process, and 
about twelve years iaierwe heariif him engraving by the same 
process ; to do this he prepared metallic plates by coating them 
with asphaltum, and then exposed them to light in the camera 
obscura ; where the light had acted upon the asphaltum it became 
insoluble, whereas the shaded parts were washed away with oil of 
lavender, which left bare the metallic surface of the plate, and 
which was then etched. In 1824 Louis Jacques Daguerre, the 
inventor of the diorama, experimented also upon the nitrate 
and chloride of silver, employing the camera obscura. and striving 
to fix the pictures so obtained. In lNl>7 Niepce was introduced 
to Daguerre, and for some time kept up a regular correspondence 
which ended in a partnership ; we now find the latter neglecting 
altogether his diorama paiming and closely studying chemistry. 
It was while pursuing those studies that he observed the curious 
fact that a silver spoon he had left on a metal plate previously 
treated with iodine, had left its impression clearly on the metal 
surface ; this he further developed with oil of petroleum. Shortly 
after this, about 1833, Xiepce died and left Daguerre to solve 
alone the problem of the process called after him. I may as well 
state here in what consisted his invention : lie exposed a highly 



TIIE EISE AND PE0GEESS OF PnOTOGEAPITT. 149 

called his magic cupboard, one and all of them became developed ; 
at last all the chemicals were removed. In a fever of anxious 
excitement he again prepared and exposed some plates and put 
them in their usual plae< . ami on going a few hours later, imagin- 

fully developed. Mystery of mysteries! but soon to be cleared 
up ; for on a close examination i,f the magical cupboard he found 
a small dish containing mercury that had escaped his notice. 
Other plates were quickly prepared, exposed, and put in the cup- 
board ; result, the same. Thus mercurial vapour became the 
recognized medium for development in this process. 

The news of his discovery soon spread, and Humboldt, Biot, 
Arago.and others became hi- confidants. A tier much persuasion 
and delay he consented to give his discoverv to his country in 
consideration of a vearlv pension of t.oOn' francs, and on 'the 

French Academy of Science, in the Palais Ala/.arin. Daguerre 
illustrated his pVoee- bv ,|<-\ . h.pnx nt As might be expected, 
the news of this wonderful process of pin ure-mal<ing had been 



It need hardly be 



Daguerre bad constantly 
before he did. but his Y< 
have so perfected it as 1 
"'Vself. | uil| ,],«.„ tn:lk( 





civilization 


,','Sl: 


or Draper 

rd. Hiake, 


f§ 


; , ' , ' i ' i ! ;; > i, | l |"' 



150 THE EISE AXD PEOGEESS OE PHOTOGEAPHT. 

with the sun full in his face ; the operator gives the final warning 
to be Btill. The seconds pass — succeed each other — and seem to 

called the "patient "). in >pite of ali his efforts, is overpowered 

by the solar rays ; the eyelids open and close, the face contracts, 

entire body shakes like thai of an epileptic who wants to keep 
still, and the Daguerreotype plan- represents the image of a poor 
wretch who is undergoing the torture of ordeal by fire." 

Shortly after its public: ; i, ,.i. C-.ddard added bromine to the 
iodine, which greatly accelerate! its eh'eci •. and (Jlaudet finally 
added chlorine. Better lenses were also speedilv manufactured, 
the best of which were those by Professor Petzval. manufactured 
by Yoightlander, who became celebrated for his now-called 
photographic lenses. These, however, have in their turn been 
superseded by those of Lereboiirs and Secretain, Chevallier, 
Ross. and Dallmeyer. 



so'piei "uT " , 1 ."■•'".. than That by 
Wed* ..o.m!.,., , thepicl m btained 



>ut_ of date now. 
.rlnio'of Silver!" 



i action against 
Scott, Archer, and G-ustave le G-rey, the inventors of the 
i process ; the second one is his reply. We will begin 

. has arrived at 'uc'ls a <h ,r< e vi | , rieciion that it must 
ome of national importance ; and we are anxious that 
•t itself originated Id also receive its 

perfection and development in this country. At present, 
although England continues to take the lead in some 
; of the art, yet in others the French are unquestionably 
nore rapid progress than we are. It is very desirable 
should not be lefl b Mriona of the Con- 

i the improvement and development of a purely British 
i, and as you are the possessor of a patent right in this 





l.. ( .. 


r ;,, 


call your attention to the subject, 


3 whether 




lay i 


aot be possible for you by making 








of your patent 


rights to obviate 








ow appear to hii 




ft-:;:; 


M: 


S 


re the co-oper 
it is evident the 
art the more 


^plications of the 
ation of men of 
more freely they 

probable it 'is that 


nil "\l ; 




-d 


with success, a 


ad, as we feel no 



Mr. Fox Talbot's rep 



152 

public ; this is a branch of the art which must necessarily be 
in a few hands. With this exception then, I present my inven- 
tion to the country, and trust that it may realize our hopes of 
its future utility. — Fox Talbot." 

The exception to which Mr. Talbot referred fell through at 
once, as the advance of photography was so rapid that other 
improvements soon left his original process in the background. 
Paper, although a convenient, was nevertheless a defective 
medium ; it is true it had not the unpleasant mirror-like glare of 
the silver plate, but then the texture was not all that was required; 
its fibrous nature gave oftentime orach trouble; it did not absorb 
uniformly the lap ■■ ! many other little incon- 

veniences. It was while our early workers were in this trouble 
that a nephew of Niepce, named Niepce de St. Victor, came upon 
the scene and added another name to the already host of in- 
ventors or improvers of photography. This gentleman had been 
a student at the milil;irv school of Saumur. and became Lieut. 
of Dragoons in lsi'2 ; "it was at that time he began to study 
seriously scientific pursuits. He soon found, however, that a 
provincial town afforded him very few chances for becoming 
known to the men of the dav. and a<' uniin-lv got transferred to 
the Paris Municipal Guard. " It was in the say capital, in a small 
room belonging to an under officer of police, that he pursued 
under great, difficulties his various studies and very interesting 
xperiments ; for it is not to be wondered i 



that time was starch, subsequently abandoned for albumen about 
the year 1847. Albumen was considered a perfect medium for 
the salts of silver until another happy app! (ration took place. 
In 1846, Schoenbier announced his discovery of gun cotton. 
Le Grey, Archer, and Pry at once saw hopes of utilizing the 
new material, and after "many trials and failures, Scott Archer 
succeeded in introd ic n- t u d orou-lit out his collodion process. 
Le Grey in France had also been rewarded with success in the 
same direction. 

This discovery opened a new and brighter epoch than had as 
yet dawned upon the now army of photographers; this process 

photographer, for from the date of its find appearance to the 
present day it has never ceased to prove itself to be the greatest 
boon we have w ■ -'.lion of nhoto- 



It was my intention to omit any matter relating to the 
practical part of photography, but the importance of this process 
calls for a passing and short notice of its modus operandi. We 



will begin with the gun cotton. This substance is procured by- 
saturating ordinary cotton wool, certain fibrous woods or paper, 
in a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, after which it is well 
washed to free it from all traces of acid and allowed to dry. 
It is then dissolved i 
a glutinous solution 
bromides are now introduced i 
iodized collodh 

to evaporate, which it does rapidly, 
and is then plunged into an aqueous solution of nitrate of silver. 
The iodides and bromides now combine with the silver and form 
by double decomposition an iodide and bromide of silver with 
an excess of nitrate of silver in solution. This plate is then 
exposed to the action of light in the camera obscura, when a 
latent image is formed, which is developed or brought out by 
the action of proto-sulphate of iron or pyrogillic acid ; the 
unaltered iodide of silver is then dissolved away by means of 
cyanide of potassium or hyposulphite of soda. 

IVrfeet negatives being now easily procured it became necessary 



drv this was Ho; 
l chloride of the 



image. A smooth and finely gran 
prepared by laying on its surface 
which was deposited a chloride ; whei 
solution of nitrate of silver, forming 
After again drying it was exposed behind a negative; gradually 
the exposed parts became changed in colour, turning first violet 
or pale reddish brown according to the chloride used, gaining in 
intensity as the light acted upon them, and finally becoming 
almost bronzed in the perfectly transparent parts of the negative. 
These prints are now toned in a solution of chloride of gold 
and fixed in hyposulphite of soda ; these are called silver prints, 
's the one in actual use where only small numbers 



<K 



;urally imagine that ail the trials and uncortain- 
een now overcome, and that nothing remained but 
to work and multiply ; so it was for some time thought, but soon 
came back the ghost of past days, and it was found that these 
beautiful proofs wire not permanent. A variety of causes 7iiade 
them uncertain, and one is .u v. r Hire of having a silver print 
that will not either fade or turn yellow: some have retained their 

early days of albumenized paper looking as fresh and pure as 
'when first produced, but they are the exception and are very, 
very lew in number. 

Tins indeed was a serious drawback in the now advanced si age 1 
of photography, but progression, the natural order of things, 
brought its powerful aid, and as trouble and uncertainty came 



I them ; and if the 
i to overcome their 
example has heen nobly 
taken up, not by one, but by a legion, to save this beautiful and 
valuable aid to art and science from the stigma of being but a 
fadine record. 

complete photo- 
penic i 

The former may yet be a long way off, but the experiments of 
Bequerel, Niepce de St. Victor, Vidal, Woodbury and others, have 
so far succeeded that for commercial purposes there arc already 
three processes in use. We turn to the latter requirement and 
find that success has bountifully rewarded the many patient 
months and years of trial in this direction, for photography which 
has already in many cases supplied the place of the artist or 
designer, has now allied it.se::' \ phi >to-mechanical 

printing has now become a practical fact, is in use all over the 
civilized world, and I think the day not far distant when large 
printing establishments will not be considered complete without 
a photographic branch. The advantages derived from these 
processes are permanent impressions, rapidity of printing, printing 
independently of white light, perfect equality in the tone and 
valu< " "' 
the . 

to show the immense utility of such processes, but s 
from an article in the London Times on the value of the repro- 
ductions of the pictures of the great masters would not be 

" If pictorial art, is, indeed an educational influence of a high 
order, and if it is desirable to keep beauty of form before the 



eyes of the young, the autofrj in 1 1) of the great 

should not only find the places of honor of which they 
I worthy, but they should be in every nursery and school- 



This is only obi < on ; there are astronomy, 

botany, geology, ethnology, jurisprudence, and a hundred other 
ways of uskiK them. But I 'must leave the>e for the present and 



introduce t 

photo-mechanical printing. I have thought it not out of place to 

include a very valuable and beautiful process, a\ Inch although not 

mechanical is nevertheless a permanent printing process, and in 

point <>f value is not the least a 

process, or as it is called i 

simply the production i 

chemical action upon gelatine and permanent pigments, such 2 

are used by artists in oil, water colour, or crayon drawings. 



ed in Great^Britain "Autotype," which is 
of pictures by the means of light and 



The rationale of the process is this,— that bichromate of potash, 
in conjunction with gelatine, albumen, gum, etc., when dry 
becomes decomposed and insoluble in hot water when acted upon 
by light , whereas it remains unaltered in those parts not subjected 
to light, the action that takes place is " that gelatine, aided by 
light, reduces the chromic acid of the bichromate to a lower state 
of oxidation, then enters into a cmbinaf ion with a compound of 
chromic acid, produced by a mutual decomposition of chromic 
acid and gelatine, the original being the formation of a leather- 
like substance, insoluble iu hot water." 

The first person who observed this, action was ATungo Ponton ; 
Monsieur Bequerel found that sized papers aided the result, but 
it was Poitevin who discovered the important fact that if a pig- 
ment were added to the gelatine and bichromate of potash and 
then dried and exposed to light, the pigment became entangled 



A paper prepared with a coating of these substances and 
exposed to light behind a negative in cases of line subjects, where 

washing awav the insoluble parts was concerned, but the image 
thus obtained was reversed, and when subjects in half tones 
were tried it tailed, as the action taking place from the out- 

of the compound entirely unacted upon bv light. To remedy 
this, the Abbe Laborde. 'in France, and Mr. Blair, in England, 

the picture throng , u nsj t . i ediitm. and. alter the 

of the compound, leaving the insoluble picture lirmly attached 
to the glass or paper. This was a step in the right direction, 
and was soon followed bv others of importance, notably by 
Swan, of Newcastle, who 'spread his sensitive compound upon 
glass previously coated with collodion : iu t'u-' 
enabled to separate it from the gi.- 
remount it again for development. This he cal!< u 
afterwards greatly improved upon his process 
support of paper. After many important unpr. 
establishment of the single and double transfer. Air. K. Sawyer. 
n - 1*71, introduced his flexible support for the purpose of allow- 
ing the development of a carbon print on a soft film of an 
insoluble nature, and afterwards transferring it to any other 



156 THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 

body, such as paper, glass, wood, porcelain, ivory, &c, &c. ; thus 
the image is no longer reversed, but seen in its right position. 
The process as it now stands may be described in a few words: — 
A paper is coated with gelatine and pigments, sensitized' in a 
solution of bichromate of potash, dried and exposed behind a 
photographic negative ; those parts affected by light become 
insoluble in the development, whilst the soluble portions are 
washed away and form the whites of the picture ; the half-tones 
remain more or less insoluble. according to the amount of light 
received through the negative ; the development is effected by_ 
warm water ; the print is then passed through a solution of 
alum, washed and dried. 

The first process of photo-mechanical printing that 1 shall speak 
of is photo-lithography. Among the early records of the process 
we find by a letter from Monsieur Lacon in December, 1874, 
that a modest lithographic printer as far kick as Is 12 produced, 
by means not known, or then forgotten, many beautiful photo- 
graphic impressions on stone: he worked quietly and unheeded 
in his leisure hours, and to the fact of his great modesty and 
humble position we owe the misfortune of not being acquainted 
with his process. 1. merely mention this fact, at passant, in order 
to render honor to whom honor is due, for of all the many 

Lemercier, the head of a large and well known printing establish- 
ment in Paris, Leivbours. the optici-ui. and I >avanno, the chemist, 
using bitumen dissolved in ether. They coated a lithographic 



1S(50 Monsieur Poitevh 
process; he also coated , 
■n,g acted upon by light, 



this purpose. After exposition to the liirht. lie put the print into 
cold water to soak away all the unaltered bichromate, inked in 
with a peculiar roller and a thin transfer ink mixed with ordinary 
printing ink. This formed the transfer ready to be put upon 

>[<>•< ■ and ire,;, 1 in tin on inan manner. 

and exposed behind a negative ; by a peculiar process the una!- 



operator, who in a l.-w hour- |;:-.h!ii<t ■■ ;: p.Ttcct matrix to t 
required to form a collect .ion, or, if preferred, a copper-pla 



it known as the " 1'atfv 
bertype" " Heliotype" 
lianieal process." ' All 
lie same result being 



t has In en washed out 

i on -e in the following 

• stiff lithographic ink 

It will be observed 



urwA. and the na[,er Idled 
■u-latMH'lei! in the holies 
these are dried, fixed in 
ey are ready for trimming 



of 
the 

finest photo, engravings known, prepare metal blocks for type 
printers, make watermarks, transparencies for windows, &c, 
and magic lantern slides for educational purposes. Up to the 
present time no improvement of any importance lias been made 
in this process, but we may reasonably hope that before very 
long such alterations will havt t c i phi t! will enable us to 
make moulds without the use of the hydraulic press. 

Photo-chromo-lithography and photo-chromography come 
under the same head. In the first case a negative is made of the 
subject, say an oil is then made of 

it, and the required number of transfers printed, that is for the 
number of tints required the same number of transfers are put 
upon separate stones. The chromist then commences his work, 
taking off from each stone such portions of the work as he does 
not require, and where required adding to the work ; when all 
the stones are ready they are treated as ordinary chromo-litho- 
graphs. The advantages derived are great exactness in rendering 
the artist's outlines, less work for the chromist, less time occupied, 
and consequently less expense in the getting up. 

Photo-chromography is practised in various ways, of which 
the following I consider to be the best :— Say 5,000 impressions 
are required of any subject, the copies are taken from an ordinary 
negative by means of the Woodbury process. A mosaic block 
is then made, composed of the colours required ; the same number 
of prints are made from this block as from the negative, printed 
on an especially prepared paper. When both impressions are 
dry they are brought into contact and held together in their 
right places by a weak solution of gelatine. When again dry 
the paper holding the Woodbury print is removed, leaving the 
gelatine image firmly secured to the mosaic print, the two 
forming one picture, and have been produced by only two print- 
ings, which forms one of the most important features in the 
process. 

I wish to remark that the observations I have made on these 
processes have only been such as to give the outlines of them, 
and arc not intend d j • ' ■ H , as it would be impos- 

sible in a paper of this description to enter into anything more 
than a general and brief review of them ; hut, independently of 
the place they occupy in photographic literature, 1 considered 
that it might be interesting to this Society to hear something 
of them from me, aa I am aware that it was through the 
instrumentality of the Royal Society these processes were first 
introduced into the Colony ; and I trust I may be allowed to 



OF PIIOTOGEAPHY. 161 

I gentlemen who 
id beautiful pro- 
cesses. It was a step in the right direction, for countries, like 
individuals, if they are to succeed, must have ■ healthy mind as 
well as a strong body, and no country can afford to slight such a 
powerful auxiliary to education, art, and science as photography 
and photo-mechanical printing. 

In a paper I had the honor of reading before the Fine Art 
Section of this Society, I called attention to photography in its 
relation to, and as one of the Pine Arts. I will not therefore 
trouble you with a repetition of my remarks thereon, but I must 

number of the Art Journal relative to photographic portraiture : 
The Art Journal says : — 



Faulkner, of Baker-street, whose y 

ng beeu of un 



but of children mm-o especially, have long beeu of unsurpass 
excellence, is publishing a series of copies from nature of ' t 
little ones,' so e . ia perfect as works of art 

that high praise of them is a duty. At first sight, indeed, after 
minute inspection, so thoroughly does photography seem to be 
put aside that one receives them as transcripts after great 
painters, and is slow to believe that they have no other aid given 
to them beyond that they obtain from light, regulated by the 
mind of the photographer, who is as true an artist as any painter 
can be. We refer to those tha; are published, but a large num- 
ber of his productions are the living pets of a household, and 
are not to be scanned by every eye. "These treated as Air. Faulk- 
ner has treated them arc far more effective than any drawings 
can be ; all the objections urged against photography _ vanish, the 
likeness ia entire truth, and obtains all the value derivable from 
the most consummate art. Some portraits in his studio of fair 
and stately dames may be taken for copies from Gainsborough 
or Sir Joshua Eeyno'lds. We may not say that the art can 
never go farther, but bevond question the art has never yet gone 
so far as Mr. Faulkner has carried it." 

And now, in conclusion, let me say a few words relative to the 
position that photography occupies as 

We find that it is used b! " 
firstly in the form of j 

v a great saving < 
use; then since the introduction of photo-mechanical printing 
and permanent enlarged prints it is employed for illustrating the 
resources of these countries, for Government reports, for copying 
and vulgarising x' - of pictures of ancient and 

objects from the i 



ed by almost all the European Governments, 
photo-lithography for reducing and copying 
aving of time and capital is effected by its 



Draper, Vogel, Delarue and Janssen. 
the photographs taken of the sun were 
has brought them to perfection, and 
of the sun 18 inches in diameter si 
twofold kind, some granular, and so 
shape. A magnified examination of 

that the markings on the sun and 
another. Father Lauiey believes he < 
upon the solar pictures of Mr. Ja:is>en 

i'\ - .\\n iii the [Jut! 






' a P h 7- 

yet recorded is the photo- 



• Blake, of Brown University. Dr. Klein, of Frank- 



■• iilatf.l spee< 
by Professor Blake, of Brown University, 
fort, and M. Koniir. of Paris, have both shown 
corresponding to certain noises ; but this is the first t 
"word or sentence uttered by the human voice has be< 
by the camera obscura. Professor Blake emph.ved 
piece of the telephone, and fixes to the vibrating plat 
steel wire, upon which a mirror is set. The mirror ai 
plate being in perfect communication, all movements of 



THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 

;ums and libraries, but how gratefully would some enlarge - 

■ ..;':'.-,■ ;■.., :■-■■: .;..■;-,■,,. 

on the Continent. Take again the case of the Fiji Islands : 
valuable a history of this new addition to our country may 
aade by a carefully regulated tour with the camera. Man- 
and i-u-tuiii;, races and habitations, everything of real 
■est miidit be faithfully made to the general benefit of all— 
" g to the general public who like to know all about such 
nteresting to keep in the records of the country; 
' ' short to all ; and 6 ' 



ledge is power, and we possess all the necessary requirements for 
that knowledge, the fault is our own if we do riot avail ourselves 
of these privileges. One more remark, I would mention micro- 
photography ; a world of wonders has 1« i dn ."■ 
this branch of the art ; wonders never dreamt of have become 
familiar facts : so astonishing is this branch of photography 
that if required all the books in the British Museum Library 
might be reduced and packed in a chest of drawers. I might 
go on enumerating for a \oivj; time the many applications of 
photography, but I must desist; suffice it to say, that all who 
are engaged in the study of art or science find iii photography a 
valuable friend ; — to the manufacturer it has became a necessity 
and its service in daily life as a portraitist is simply unbounded. 
I cannot do better than finish this paper in the words of a writer 
in All the Year Hound, "If you do not understand photography, 



PROCEEDINGS. 



PEOCEEUI.Mi.s 



rAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



WEDXESDAY, 1 MAY, 1S7S. 
•eneral Meeting of the Royal Society of New South 

I in the Sot-i.-tvV Kr.oms, Kl iz.il. Kh-street. 
i-toplirr ll,,llr,ton, V.I'., in the chair. 






"In establishing nine (9) diirbivm Sections (hiring the session of 
1876 it was intended to give every member a favourable oppor- 
tunity for bringing any matter of scientitie interest before the 
Society, even without requiring to dress those observations in the 
garb of a more or less elaborate paper, such as would be laid before 

" It is hoped these Sections will be more fully made use of during 

the present session. The preliminary meetings for the election of 

were held much earlier this year than before, viz., ('luring the early 
part of last month. This will enable each Section to begin their 
regular monthly meetings this month, and thus to secure during 
the current year seven monthly sectional meetings, besides eight 



ceipts from su' 

3 added the sum of £200, 



towards providing a suitable b 
answered, Parliament having < 
ditionally that the sum of £1,( 
purpose by the public. 



to Government for the payment of the aforesaid Parliamentary 
grant of £500. 



[•every assistance must 1 -e valuaMc, 
•s unite, even small imli\ i< lual sul>- 
2gate most useful to the end in view. 



Honorary Member. 

In accordance wit] i a reeomnmndatioii from the Council, Thomas 
Walker, Esq., of Yaralla, Concord, was duly elected honorary 
member of the Society. 

Tin- following Financial Statement for the year ending 30 April, 
1S7N, was presented by the Ibv. W. Scott, M.A., Honorary 
Treasurer :— 

Receipts. £ s. d. 

To balance in the Union Bank, 30th A pril, 1 S77 123 3 2 



issor LiversuL'. 



ns from 1st May, |s77. ,. ,.. . ■ 



The Honorary Treasurer reported that including the «£500 from 
Mr. Thomas Walker, the subscriptions promised towards the 
Building Fund up to 36 April, L878, amounted to £976 3s., as 

per tin' following list : 

£ s. d. 
Abbott, Thomas Kingsmill 3 3 



Belfield 


, Alge, 


-non II 


Bensua 


in. S. ] 


L 


Hh^,:' 


Thum 


S F :.: 


U..I ii.u 


. 11. .1 




Bow-n.' 




e M. < 


Brazier, 




cm.; 


ftrodrib 




A., F. 


Brown, 






Bunell 






Ownpb 


11. All 


an, L.I 


Campb 


11. Th. 


• lb. ii. 



MacDonnell, ' 



.... 

:M..iv1um.1, R. A. A 

Muling, -l.islah , 

Oilt.y. R.-v. Jacob 

O'Reilly, W. W. J., M.D 

Paterson, Hugh 

Eolleston, Christopher 

Ilu.--si.-ll. IWvC, B.A., F.R.A.S., &c 

Scott, Rev. William, M.A 

Sharp, James B., J.P 

Smith, The Hon. J., C.M.G., M.D., LL.D., 









LO 10 



mt grant), he hoped 
entlemen were duly 



H. C. RUSSELL, B.J 



Sretn,,, I) X„t,;;r/ lit 
Fitzgerald, F.L.S. 
of Herbarium : W 
Daintrey and Jam 

Section E—Mo-roxr,,;,, 
Secretary: P. P.", 
MacDoimell, W. ? 
Wright. M.Ji.C.S. 

Section K—ireJw!, ' 
Secretaries: Prs. 



under the supervision of Mr. P. B. Walk. 
Superintendent, assisted! >y .Messrs. 1 )al<_r.-ir: . W 
all of whom were present to explain the v; ; e 
Amongst the numerous instruments on view \va 
bichromate batter/ eoaneoted with automatic 

appu'iims, together with a dynanm • 
' 1 Sydney Harbour. 



-r 



. Dalgarno exhibited : 
electric instruments, including an electric battery f< 
purposes. 

Amongst the astnmniineal m-truments exhibited by t 
ment Astronomer was a new barrel chronograph for 
star transits, the pen of which by the action of eleetro-u 

Mr. Eussell also had on view a meteorograph 
designed by himself and made at the < >; 
on a sheet of paper 20 incta 
record of thermometer, barom< iff, di 



sediments of the water i 



H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.AS 
C. Moore, F.L.S. 
G. D. Hirst. 



WEDNESDA Y, 5 JUNE, 1S7S. 
Ordinary monthly meeting of the Royal Society of New S 
Scales, held in the > beth-street 

Ham. J. Smith, C.M.g', M.D., V.R, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 



duly elected ondnary 



WEDNESDAY, 3 JULY, 

Onlluarv monthly meeting of the Royal ! 
Wales, held in the Society's rooms, Klizabe 
Smith, C'.M.<!., Ml).. V.l'. 



fourth edition of my « Rema 
the help of my son I have iro 
have not yet left the printing 



which occurred on Easter Sun- 
ruggle to get through my min- 
lerciful, and I am not despair- 

ii'i over-work about the Look. 
, make: a -oo<l deal of research 



of him whose decease > 



Iuhviu Chish. 




Vincent W.G 


E. W. L. Her 



C. Phys. EdifLj 



es, F.G.S., Dept. 

stiereagh-street. 



y. Kliz:il.,-tli Buy Road. 
• Relininu' Co., Brid^f '-street. 
Macquarie-street, 



paper on " Metal- 



t. jr. i.',..t 

Thnuia, III 
K.-in.d.l 



id father a*the !Se" 
elSyai e |odety e an t 



But the coi 

> :my further 



Mr. J. TFkvkv should like to express his disapproval < 
pottb. With all due deference for the views of 
1"' -still maintained respectfully that a scholarship in the University 
for geology and other subjects connected therewith would 
perpetuate the memory of the late Mr. Clarke in a far more 
1 ' He also 
the 



rising young men of Australia 


than the forms suggested. The 


course of lectures would attract 




hardly appeal to any fei'ling of sy 


mpathy. He gathered from what 


he had heard that this medal w 












be able to pursue their studies ; 




University. He thought it was t 








reward to stimulate their' love to 


r science. While these were his 



one of the Yicc-I 
by the death of 
Mnntefinro liad 1 



Krv. (V.ii.ui-Moivt.m.St. IVutV I'.u^.i.:)-,--. Woolloomooloo. 

Octavius L. Montefiore, Greshum-street. 

S. De Lissa, :\ Barrack-street. 

Rev. Peter 3hi, •]>!.. rsnn. M.A.. Bank-street. Pa-t Mdthuid. 

Fred. H. Kyngdon, M.P.. L.S.A., M.it.C.S., CM., North 

G. W. A. Bayley, Miller's Point. 
George H. lleid, Secretary to Attorney-* Jenend. 
Henry Wise. Saving' Bank. Barraek-Mreet. 
Rex. Edwin II. WriVht, Dul)l.o. 



regretted tli. 
The Hox. 

microscope ,, 



nember, Mr. Blade 



t would record 500 words. 
v nuisiVul sounds, 
it with the flute and the 



Mr.' I 



spoken in 
i propose a 
exposition 



WEDNESDA Y, 2 OCTOBER, 1S7S. 
Ordinary monthly meeting of the Royal Society of New South 
Wales, held in the Society's Rooms, Elfzaheth-street. 
Charles Moore, F.L.S., in the Chair. 

Tho following gentlemen were dulv elected ordinary members 
of the Society, viz. :— 

John Newton, Darling Point, 



mTw A Ur ] 
Deep Well Wai 



186 PROCEEDINGS. 

WEDNLSDA Y, 4 DECEMBER, 1878. 

Ordinary monthly meet in:.;- <»f i i i ( ■ Royal Society of New South 
Wales, held in the Society's Rooms. '■'. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 

W. IT. Archer, F.I. A., London, Australian Club. 

Edwin Henry Bestic, L.R.C.S, Ireland, L.R.C.P., Edin- 
burgh, Arthursleigh-terrace. 

William Chatfield, 69, Pitt-street. 

Herr Kretschmann, Sydney. 

Stephen Mallarky, Government Printing Office. 

Duncan Mearns Maitland, jun, Elizabeth-street, Pad- 
dinirton. 

Jules M< ilhan, Vi< mi h r: nace, Victoria-street. 

James L. Ogilvy, Oriental Bank Corporation, Sydney. 

Nineteen donations (publications) uvn- laid upon the table, also 
a special donation to the museum of the Soei"ty, namely a collec- 
tion of two hundred and one species of land and marine shells, 
presented |,y John IU-axier, Esq., C.M.Z.S. 

A paper was then read by Mr. L. W. Hart on "The Rise and 
Progress of Photography." 

Mr. W. A. Dixon, F.C.S., F.I.C., read a paper entitled "Notes 



Tidal 

Mr. Charles Moore, F.L.S., one of the Vice-Presidents of the 
Society, informed the members that Dr. Leibius, one of the 
Honorary Secretaries, intended shortly to proceed on a tour to 
Europe, and would probably be absent at the next general meeting 
of the Society. Mr. Moore referred in very eulogistic terms to 
the services rendered to the Society by Dr. Leibius, and to the 
large amount of time ami attention bestowed upon the Society's 
affairs by him, more especially since during the absence of 
Professor Livorsidge, the joint Honorary Secretary, the whole 
of the duties of this oihYe had fallen upon him. 

The CHAIRMAN' heartily indorsed all that was said by Mr. 
Moore, and a hearty vote of thanks to Dr. Leibius, coupled with 
best wishes for his intended journey, were passed by the meeting. 

Dr. Leibius, in thanking the two Vice-Presidents and the meeting 
for their very kind appreciation of his services to the Society, and 
their good wish'-- for hi intended trip to Europe, assured them 
that, though the work of Honorary Secretary had, on account of 
the large extension and progress of the Society, very much 





n.l America. Prolc-or 
Secretaries, had certainly 
?n here, and givat credit i 


l!hvr>M]'v! U a, , orc-' l .V'th.- 

s due to him for the part he 

tlic Society had taken during 


aluaUe 


selecting Looks, and a very 
his session of the Society, 
ted ; and it is hoped that, as 
■ hundred members, a larger 



ADDITIONS 

LIBRARY OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

The names of the Donors are in Italics. 
Reports, Observations, ftc. 

Adelaide:— The Adelaide I'h.vivitv ( akndar fur the Academical Yea 

1878. Th<- Jiv,ji*trar. 

Catalogue of Plants in the Government Botanic Garden, Adelaide, 

Report of the Progress and Condition of the Botanic Garden and 






t «f the (,; ologlcal Survey of India, 



doptera, l»y f. S],;u;v S.Anu/ulw. 

Do. do. do. do. do. 1875 (five do.) 

■■:■ ! ' '., : ., .' . . ; ... ^ ' . .' \ ' ;;i" 

N-rv.^i.-L., S|,,.;-;,.i ,'.,t:;!,..;u, fi.r ila- Ii,t,n : :,ti- .:.:d K:Jiil.iti.-,n at 
l'h.hi,V!;,!,i;i. is:,;. ^ 



Glasgow :— The Glasgow Universin ( 'aK i„i..!-, 1 S7S- 70. The Registrar. 
Hamburg: — Verba fill Naturwissenschaftliche Un- 

terhaltung zu Hamburg, 1871—1874. 

1875, Band 11. The Society. 

MittheilungenderGeographischenGeselbcliuu in Hamburg. Is7ii, 1877. 

The Society. 

Haarlem : — Archives Kecrlandaises des Sciences exactcs et Naturelles. 

Tome, XIII. Livraison 1, 2 and 3. The Society. 

Heidelberg :— Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medicinischen Vereins 

zu Heidelberg, zweiter band erstcs heft. The Society. 

Iowa :— Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural ! 

Vol. II., Parti. 
Jena :- 

■ 
XL Bd. N.F. 4 Bd. 3 Heft. 
XL „ 4 „ 4 „ 



: Academy. 



Lai-sannf: :- 1'ulletin df la Sori.f- Vaudolse do 
VoL XV. Nos. 78, 79. 

Annales de la Socirte G<5ologique de Belgique. 



Proceedings of the 
Liverpool. No. XXXI. Z'Mm 

Proceedings of the Royal Society. Vol. XXVI. Nos. 179, 180, 181, 
183, 184, 185, 180, 187. 

Vol. XXVII. Nos. 188, 189. 

Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Vol. VI. 
List of the 1/ 
The Journal 



I -77-' 



•'■■nrti.tl u! tin !. m 

Botany. Vol. XVI. Nos. m, ill, >X>, %, J»7, 



Memoirs of the K-vn A ; ;, .: > , r . V,.}. QJH 1878 ><• 

The Society. 
A Catalogue of the Books in the Admiralty library. The Librarian. 
The Geological Record for 1875. The Editor. 

Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society. Vol. III. V>- - :; - -'*' 



finned. 
The Journal ! Institute of Gr< 

Ireland. Vol. VII. No. III. Febn.arv. 1^7S. 
„ Vol. IV. No. IV. May. 1V>. 

' il Society. Vol. I. ' 



The So 
Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects, 1877. 

Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. Vol. \ 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society. Vol. XXII, N< 

Report of the Council of the Royal Colonial Institute. 2S June. 
- - - 
I .ki. t,u I, ,xuil ByHar 



i'i Im.s ■ f tl't I'M -'. ,1 ■><"> i< r\ <>l I 



;"«.. 



By Dr. Speck. 

r, i,,;-,s 

Dr. E. Hess. 

ssA.;nrsv:rrs : 



Annual Report Museum of Comparative ZooIm-," 



ul Vegetable Substances. By 
Witt.st.-in. Tran.d.it.d l.\ i'.aixm i\nl. von Mueller, 



Vol. V, 1878. Baron Ferd. von MibUer, Government Botan 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. V< 

Progress of the Iron and Steel '. 



i — I'M- i 1 'ii 



dust ms in Foreign ( 
Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. No. 1, 1873. The Institute. 
Montpellier :— Memoires de la section des Sciences. Tome IX. 1 Fasc, 

1876. The Academy. 

MuLHOnsE :— Bulletin de la Societe Industrielle de Mulhouse. January, 

February, March, April, May, June, July August, September, 

October, November, 1878. The Society. 

Mum hen : — Abii -■ ■lie— Phvsickalischen classe der 

Koniglich Bayerischen Akademie der Wisseuschaften. XII. 
■ XIII. Band 1, 2, and " " 

1 ^Akade^hAfe 



Neuchatel :— Boll . h b Natorellea de NYudiat'-l. 

Tome XI. Premier cahier. The Society. 

NEWCAsTLE-rpox-TvNi \ i' ., I\ u .- ( m il Society Trans- 
actions. Vol. Ill, 1874-7. 

Do. Report of Committee. The Society. 

Oxford :— Radcliffe Observations, 1875. Vol. XXXV. 

Radcliffe Library Catalogue of Books on Natural Science, up to Decem- 



Catalogue of I 

Museum, 1877. The Radcliffe Tmste 

'■ . , -,-. ^ M ■-'- 
1877. 
T! M.. • I' « i \ . h. A nte, Assoc. Inst., C.i 

Clement's, Oxford. 
On the lianiiall for 26 wars— 1851-1873. 
A new form of Polariscope, &c. /'.'■ 

Paris :— Etude sur les Ouragans de 1' Hemisphere Austral. By M. Brid( 
Nouvelle Classification des Nuages. 
Usage du Cercle Mendien Portatif, &c. 
Meteorolog Qtoexaks. 

■ ■ . ■ 
Directtur-Gimral du Dep6t des Cartes et Plat 



Philadelphia r—Journal of the 

023-624. 
Do. Do., Vol. CV, Xos. (!2.-», 020, 027, 028, 020, 630, 631, 

632, 633, 034, 03.). 77,- /«^,Vm^. 

Transactions of the American Entomological Society. Vol. V, Nos. 1, 

Catalogue of 'the Lepid'optera of America, North of Mexico. Part I. 

Diurnals. Bv William II. Edwards. The Society. 

Proceedings of the American 1' ,*,. h d - et\ Vol. XVII, 

urging Members of the American Philosophic >..ci, -^ ■ • . ^ 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phihuh phia. Parts 



11, Soci.ty. 
III., fascl-2. 
13 .lanuary, 

The Society. 



b The o 

— Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Ham 

•: r . M. 13 and 14. 

tang Till K. Vet-Akad-Handl. Bd. 3. 

■ > •■ 
33,"l*70. 

-.._■ Till en Furteckning Ofve 
Hittills Kaudu Hcmiptora, &c, by C. Stael. 



I. II, III. 
I, II, III. 
I, II, III. 



176 „ I, II, III. 

177 „ I, II. 

hrift zur Feier d. :■ ; l.mms der P.bcr- 

ird-Kurl- Ini^r-iUt n\ ru.n_.ti '«t'i August, 1877, Pwith 
litho. plates. The Editors. 

Proceedings of the Linnean S (J ei< ty of New South Wales— 
0. II Part 2, 4. 
, III. „ land 2. 

The Society 



1 Ky.l.-i 



Map of the Districts of Hartley, Bowenfels, Wallerawang 



The, Minister of Mm. 
5.W., for the year 1877. 



Flora Australiensis, by George Bentham, F.R.S., assisted by Baron 

von Miiellor, C.M.G. 
Fossil Remains of the Extinct Mammals of Austral u. 
Owen. 

The Colonial Secretary. 
wania :— Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 



Trieste :— Bollettino della 
vTlIL No. 3. 



1S77. 



Irteorologie 

, 10, 11, 12, Pi, U. 
18, 19, 20, 21, 22. The Society. 

iaiserlich— Koniglichen Geologischen Rcichsan- 
d WVn. N. <. 1. 2. 3, 4. 1877. 

XX VI II. Xos. 1,2. 1878 
der K. K. Geologischeo Reichanstalt. Nos. 1 to 



' <ensehaftlieheClasseErste j* 1 ^" 1 - 
I, LXX 

ng. r ■ - 
, _2ro __. 

i: . I, XX I. I .XX II LXXIII, LXXIv, 

LXV. The Academy. 

Verhandhingen der K. K. Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft 

inWienT Band XXVII. The Society. 

Jahrbiieher der K. k. '•'• teorologie und 

Erdmagm t inu', P y >7">. 

Th< S,>ri,ty. 

WASHINGTON : T; ■ \' . 

.Vol.1. . 

TheWeatOofl 

i. riea, No. 1. 
South and East Coast of Africa and Ea < i ' 

• 
Atlantic Coast of Europe, No. 4. 






i'j;> 



Reused 

Report on the Telegraphic Del I ' , 

tin: West Indies and Central America. 
The Determinal 

Personal Equation. 
Coasts and Islands of the Mediterranean Sea, Part 2. 

The Hydrographic Office. 
On the First Discovered Traces of Fossil Insects in the American 

Tertiaries, by Samuel H. Scudder. 

- • ill. Seudder. 

Bulletin of the United States Kutoin .1 >-i..-al Commission, Nos. 1, 2, 

: ,nd (k-oerraphieal, Vol. II.. 
Nos. 1, 2, and 4. 
Survey of the Termori. -, \ \ 1. III.. Xos 1, 2, 3, and 4. VoL IV., 
No. 1. 



eographical Survey of the Territories, 
^.^d .States Geological sur\..-yot Wyoming, iv„. ? ^,v. 
Ethnography ami l'inl-lo U \ ,.i the li 
Matthews. 



Catalogue of the Publications .,f the United States Geologies 

i direction of Professor F. V. Hayden in 

United States Geological Survey of the Territories, Vol. IX. 

Invertebrate hdiontolo-v. hv F. B. Meek. 
United States Georrraphi, ,1 S.n-v. , s \\ . -i - < th, lun I. M.-i dian. Vol. 

IV, 1'ata-outolo-v (with S.S plates). 
United States Geological Surve\ of the Territories. Vol. XL, Mono- 
Vol. VII. Ter! .,•',-,-.. 

I . V. Hfljrfen). 

*■■ ih American Indians. 
Fiir-lieariiic: Animals (20 plates). 

iary epor . a.., , CS. Geologist. 

Report of the Director of the Mint for 1ST."!, lsTC 1*77. 



■ ■ \ . 



The Opposition 



Report of the Board of 
Naval Light Artillery \ 



tti-ns fur the a|ii...iiitinL'i.t of < ^let-Engineers in the U. S. Navy. 
,1 Register of the U. S. .Naval Academy. 1877-78. 

Hii],rr!ntrn,l l -nt U. S. Xm;,1 Acul my. 



Surgical Volume. 
Constitution Manual, 



W pu e rJosef. ° 
Congressional Directoi 
.The United States Tr< 



The Planter's Guide for Culrivatijji 
Historical Sketch of Mount Holyoak 



February, March, April, May, June, July. 1876. 



;':: tin; (mirt of ( 




Constitution of tin- United Sta 




Rules of Practice in the U. S. ] 




Congressional Directory to 18 ( 




Ouoniaii 


The Coasts of Chili, Bolivia, ar 


id P«rn. 


List of Merchai.- 




. . . 


.a:,t'uf t 


Do. Pacific 








■ : 
















Catalogue of *]. 




Meteorological i; 




Notes on Measurements of Ter 


l-u-rn.d ' 


Field-Work of the Triangulation. 



Sup>rintoi(knt U.S. ( 



if North American Batrachia and Reptilia, by 
nith-western Mexico, collected by F. E. 

■ : ' ''■ ■ " " : ' ' ■ ■ :: ,.i 

5 United States, by G. Brown Goode. 

applied to the Subdivisions of the Class 



: ni the Xaw •■( the I'nited Stat^. Jtc, 120 July, ls77. 

;< . -." ■■■.■.•■' .'■ •■■• ■ ■. /;.,■■■■ ■;•;." 



\ ' I > - "i . .• r 'siL-mil S,-r\ ice U. S. Army. Rules for the Govern- 
and Code of Regulations of the Artillery 

8 hofield. 
General Benjamin Alvord. 



Washington— continued . 

Regulations re Bounty Land with Statutes. Impeachment of William 

List of Medical Journals n 

Price List of Ordnance and Ordnance Stores. 

Annual Report ot the- lizard <.t \ isitor* ol the l". S. Military Academy, 

A History of the Rock Island Arsenal, from 1863 to 1876. 

U. S. Army Wagon Harness (Ihrsr and Mnhi. 1*77. (16 Plates.) 
~' 2st of Opinions of the Judge-Adv. 
.ketch of the TT ' ' 



- ~ • •■ 

Department, U. S. Army. 
Annual Report of the J ml. ; t ho Army, fort 

year 1877. 
Official Army Register for January, 1878. 

Srcretar;/, War Ih-f>nrtin< 

The United States Treasury Register. 
Regulations and Instructions concerning I 

July 2, 1877. 
Digest of Appropriations for the Support of the Government of t 



Do. Pacific 

Do. South Atlantic 



eau of Steam Engineering 



Observations and Orbits of the Satellites of Mars, by 1 
Wellington :— Transactions and Proceedings of the Nei 

Vol. IX. Part 2. 187ft 

„ X. „ 1877. 

Index of the Transactions and Proceedings of the ] 

Vol /.To VIII. 

Twelfth Annual Report of the Colonial Moans and [ 
The C 
WcPTTK>!i-Fnr; :— Wiirttembergische Naturwissenschaftli 
Heft, I. II. III. 



Parti. 



Miscellaneous. 

(The names of Donors in Italics.) 

Australian. Vol. 1 ; Nos. 1, 3. The Publishers. 

Brazier, Jno., C.M.Z.S. : List of Land Shells collected on Fitzroy Island. 

The Author. 
Jack, R. L., F.G.S., and John Home, F.G.S. : Glacial Drift in the North- 
eastern Carpathians. The Authors. 

Lamb, Prof. N., M.A. : On the Free Motion of a Solid through an Infinite 
Mass of Liqmd. The Author. 

Mauritius Expedition, 1874. Division I. Lord Lindsay. 

Midler, Baron Ferd. von, C.M.G. : Fragmenta Photographic Australia;. 



graphie Erganzungsheft. Nos. 53 and 54. The A uthor. 

Ratte F. ; Note sur les Roches et Gisements Metalliferes de la Nouvelle- 

Caledonie. The Author. 

Schomburgk, Dr. : Forest Tree Planting and its Influence on Climate. 



Smyth, R. Brough : The Aborigines of 7 
Woods-'IYnison, Rev. J. K., F.G.S., F.I 



Chambers's Descriptive Astronomy. 
Sir John Herschel's Cape < > 

Hu ml. ..It's C.smos. 5 vols. 

■ 

Lardner and Dunkin's Handbook of As' 
Loomes' Practical Astronomy. 

Treatise on Meteorology. 
Lockyer's Solar Physics. 






. 1S7S. lovoK 





Family. 


Harpim:. 


33. 




Solomon Islands. 




Family. 






Cassis canaliculata, Lam. 


Ceylon. 




„ testiculus, Lam. 


Juba. 












w Caledonia. 


37. 


Sycotypus ficoides, Lam. 


Philippine islands. 






Naticida 


38. 


. Lam. Port Lincoln. 


:■{-.>. 




40. 


,, millepunctata, La 


m. Adriatic Sea. 




„ marochiensis, Lam. Fiji Islands. 




Family. 


Terebrid^e. 




Terebra dimidiata, Lam. 


Tahiti. 




Family 


COXIDJE. 


43. Conus marmoreus, Linn. 


New Caledonia. 


44. 


„ imperials, Linn. 


PhilippilK' Isl:illd3. 


4.1. 




4-;. 


',', ii-nl ,.-... '/;r -." Philippine Islands. 




,, quercinus, /?/•'/;/. 




48. 




don. 


49. 


„ textile, Linn. Ne 


v Caledonia. 



., Linn. 

Sandwich Islands, 
us-! ill itn-i, ">'<- '-'.. Port -Tac kson. 

"■ rby. Bampton Reef. 



t - < ■■ - -.- . , 

63. Pelicaria scutulata, Mart. Port Jackson. 

64. Tcrebellum punctatum, Lam. New Cale< 

Family. Cytr*ida*. 



Argus, ZLi««. Mai 



„ cylindrica, Born. New Caledonia. 

„ isabella, Linn. Bampton Reef. 

,, clandestina, Linn. Tomrata boo <, r Tonga. 

asellus, Linn. Tongataboo or Tonga. 

felina, Gmel. Tongataboo or Tonga. 
Trivia quadripunctata, Gray. West Indies. 




i strigata, .1. Adams. Port Ja< 

Family. Haliotid.e. 

114. Haliotis cocco-radiata, Reeve. Port Jacks 

Family. Fissurellidjj. 

115. Lucapina incei, Reeve. Port Jackson. 



116. Scutus elongatus, Lam. Port Jackson. 







Family. Chitonid^. 




: 


118 


. Cryp 


toplax striatus, Lam. Port Jackson. 
Family. Aplttstrid*. 


119. 


Bulb 


tialineata, Wood. Port Jackson. 
Family. Bullid.b. 


l-2(i. 
121. 


Bulla 


ampulla, Linn. Port Jackson. 
oblonga, A. Adams. Port Jackson. 

Order.— PULMONIFEBA. 

Family.— Kewid.t.. 


122. 


Heli> 




I2:s. 




lambci, P/r. Duke of York Islands 
]" '/ , ' .Solomon Is?S. ** 
hargravesi, Ajtnas. Bougaineville, 5 






f>. ., am!'!--'-. ..',.' -■■ m-,:i l.-i.n:<i<. 




0. ., .Ieryri, P, /'.' San< ',.: -t . 




1. ., solitaria, .<a„. Ohio, VxuwA >:.;.-. \=: :■ 




■J .. ' ,i. - , / . i. ! ' 








i. '.', frin-ilSa.' /'/>.' 1 :'uh;.'u'a." S< .I.mion Islands. 




5. „ hunteri. ',.-. ( iuadak-anar. .Solomon Islands 




:. ;; ;!.. 




S. ,, hombi mi, Pj Vsal-1. S 1, mon Island?. 




0. " hui..' ( -t..n.iis%. //rr". U1 'IaMnai 1 M. 










2. ,', niaji'iseula, />/>. New Ireland. 




3. „ vitatta, J/?(//. Ceylon. 




















'•■ ■■ ' 


»nd». 


l '.'. V. - ." ' .', ,,'' ! ' / .'[ . : !": 


nda 


i. .. :n ;., ■■ . ;■ ( h: . ',. --.. . 


, : ..ii I 


2. ,, dux, P/r. King George's Sound. 




3. „ dufresni, L>. •<•/,.' Tasmania. 




k ,, zebra. Mull. Honduras, Cent. America. 




1 : 


-Sou,, 


. ... 
1. Pop* uva, Lh,n. Wtmi India Islands. 





/' ." 1" ■ : 
i Am, D(sh. Sol( 



. Islands. 



CLASS.— COXCim-TRA. 

Order. PHOLADACEA. 

Family. Piioladid^:. 

1 :.-irn«.';i ,>::uilis Oroy. 1'ort Jackson. 



':':::.:;..: 



186. Lucina rugifera, Reeve. Port Jacks* 
Family. Mytilidj 

Family. Teigonii 



Family. 

197. Vulsella rugosa, Lam. New Caledonia. 

Family. Ostreice. 

198. Ostrea mordax, Gould. Port Jackson. 



CLASS.-BRACHIOPODA. 

Family. Terebratulid^e. 
Sub-Family. Terebratflin^e. 

199. Waldheimia flavescens, Lam. Port Jackson. 

Sub-Family. Macasin^. 

200. Magus cumingi, Darklmji. Poi 

201. Kra - ' 



EXCHANGES AND PRESENTATIONS 



t'AL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH 1 



by the Rev. \Y. H. ( lark..-, M.A.. I-.K.S.. &c. 
3.— Reporter : N. u south Wales, 1877- 

.._.,,,; \ u - ;, \\ iln 

5. -Report' of the Council of Education of New South Wales, 1877. 
America (Uxited States). 



Albany.— New York State Library, Albany. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 
Annapolis (M.D.) -Naval Acadi-niy. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Baltimore.— John Hopkins' University. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
Boston— American Academy of Science. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Boston SoeuU of Natural History. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Buffalo— Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Cambridge.— The Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvai 

Chicago— Academy of Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Coldwater— Michigan Libraiy Association. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Davenport (Iowa).— Academy of Natural Sciences. Nos. 1, i 
Hoboken (N.J.) The Stevens' Institute of Technology. Nos. 1 
Minneopolis.— Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences. Nos. 
New York.- Amen, m ( ], ... I S.,i-ty. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Ly„\r,.' ;N«I IK**] — V- ;: - : , .. 

Penikese Island.- Anderson School of Natural History. Nos 
Pbiladelpbia.-Aca.lemy of Natural Sci. . 



1 ■.■■■.! ' 

■'..:.' - l 
Salem (Mass).— Peabody Academy of Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Essex Institution. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
St. Louis. —Academy of Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 



Wu ;:..:.■;-.. ... 

Dr. F. V. Hayden, ( 

Nos. 1, 2, :?, 4. 5. 
Hydrography <>!; ■• X-. 

Smithsonian lnsti 
War IVpt. \..s. 
Chief Signal Otli. 

-!!.■ 



X.-s. 



Hamiltoi 
Montrea 

Ottawa.- 
Toronto. 


(Canada West).— E 


Prague. 


W**UtaH. 


Vienna. 





Belgium. 
Brussels.— Academic Royale dea Sciences, dea I 

Liege— Socirttf dea Sciencea. Nos. 1, 2, 3, ■ 



Cape Town.— The PbOotopl 

Port Louis.— The Royal So< 



New South Wales. 
Sydney.— The Australian Club. No. 1. 
„ TheAusti x ' 

The Free Public Library. No. 1. 
„ The Linnean Society of New South Wt 

,, The Mining Department. No. 1. 

i .- i.'.. ■ , . N . 
i .—.:,'■.■: \.- !. 

The Union Club. No. 1. 

The University. No. 1. 

New Zealand. 
Auckland.-Auckland Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 
Christchurch.— Philosophical Society of Canterb 
OtagO— Otago Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Wellington.— The 

,, Colonial Museum. N..-. I. 2. 3. 4, 

N ■ • - ■ ' >■ ' - 



Brisbane. -The Philosophi 



Melbourne. <• No*] 

- 







210 EXCHANGES AND PRESENTATIONS. 

Dudley— Dudley and Midland Geological and Scientific Society. Noa. 1, 

1 Society. Nos. 1,2,^4 

sophical St 

Nos. I, % 4 

i. Noa. 1, 2 

Nos. 1, 2, 4, 

litor Popular .Science Review. Nos. 1, 2, A 

■ 
Th.: At:.-nt-<;ui.T*l. Noa. 1, 2, 3,4, 5. 
The Anthropological Society. Nos. 1, 2. 

The British Museum. Nos. ] , 2,' 4,' 5. 

The Chemical Society. Nos. 1, 2. 

The Entomological Library. Nos. 1, 2, 4. 

The Geological Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 

The Geological Survey of Great Britain. Nos. 1 

The Museum of Practical Geology. Nos. 1, 2, 4 

The Institution of Civil Engineers. Nos. 1, 2, A 

. Society. Nos. 1, 2. 4. 
The London Institution. Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5. 
The M.M.-..ro!..giral(Hlice. Nos. 1, 2,4. 
The Meteorological Society, Nos. 1, 2, 4. 
The Physical Society, South Kcnsin-ton Museui 

The Royal Asiatic Swicty. Nos. 1, 2, 4. 
The Royal Astronomical Society. Nos. 1, 2. 
The Royal Colonial I 
The Royal College oi 

The l;,.yil ( 'olk-gc Of 
The Royal tier.L'raphieal Society, 
The Royal Historical Society. ' No; 
The Royal Institution of < ireat Brit 
The Royal Microscopical Societv. 
The RoVal school of Mines. Nos. 
The Roval Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3, A 
The Royal Society of Lttcntax* 



Oxford. The Ashmolean Library. Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5 

The Bodleian Library. Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5. 

The Radcliffe Library. Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5. 

„ The Radcliffe Observatory. Nos. 1, 2. 



Penzance— Geological Society of Cornwall. Nos. I 

Plymouth.— Devon and Cornwall Natural History £ 

Truro.— Mi' ,• ill and Devon. 

Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and 3 

France. 
Bordeaux.— Academie des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 
Caen .— Academie des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 4. 
Dijon— Academie des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 4. 
Lille.— Socit5te- G6ologique du Nord. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 
Montpellier.— Academie des Sciences et Lettres. J 
■ 

Cosmos (Mons. Victor Meunier). Nos. 1, 2, 
Depot de la Marine. Nos. 1, 2, 5. 







Ecole des Mines. N 


-". i,'2.'::~V 


































Ecole Polytechnique 


No's. 1. 2.' 4." 


Nos 


1, 2, 4, 5. 












Jardin des Plantes. 


















I.vs Mcndfs (Mons. 


















L'ObsL-rviUoire. Nos. 1, 2. 
















Muse"e d'Histoire Na 


urelle. Nos. 1 
















Iloyale Academic de 


Sciences. Xu 


. If, 2, 














Societe Botani.pie. 


Nos. 1, 2. 




















MA: 














Soeiete tie Biologic. 




















lent pour 1 Industrie 




Nos. 1, 








SociSte' Entomologiq 


e. Nos. 1, 2, 3 

e X- 1, 2. 


L 4 






ft 


5. 






Soeiete" Ge"ologique. 

Society Meteorology 


aede France. ** 


Kos. 1 


2,4. 












Society Mineralogiqu 


















Soeiete Philoteehniq 














Saint 


Etienne.— Soeiete de 1 


Industrie Cniv 


reck. 


Nos. 1, 2 


4. 






Toulouse.— Academie des Sc 


enees. Nos. 1, 


2, 4, 5 










Berlin 


-Chemische Gesellsch 


J K ™T'i, 2. 


fc 
















.: - V.. .. 


aft, n. 


X..3. 1, 2 


:; ' ( 


s ; 





Freiberg (Saxony). 


— Di 


ie Berg Akademic 


i zu Freiberg. Nos. 


1, 2, S» 4. 




aturforschende 




schaft zu Freiberg. IN 


;«. s .i,2,:u. 












Gottingcn. 


Gorlitz— Naturforsc 


W 


-• | ;; ' ! -;- ] 




Gorlitz. Nos. 1, 2. 


Hamburg.— Dta Ctoc 








.ft in Hamburg. Nos 




Vereiiii 


:u y 


v, r '.y' A ^: : 


isdiafr 


liche Untechaltung in Hamburg 


Heidelberg. tfatui 


■hi ? ; 


;;,.h'M,, 




me Gesellschaft zu 


Heidelberg. 


Jena.-Medicmiscli' ; 






afJich 


e Gesellschaft. Nos. 


I. 2, 4. 


Koiigtberg.— Die I 


•ins! 


kaii*-h-..k. 


momis 


ehe Gesellschaft. Ni 


M. 1, 2. 


Leipzig iSaxony). 












Marburg.— The Ua 












GenDao 


•;'", 




T'"*< 


L. d f, r 2?4!T mten Nl 


iturwissen*- 


Muhlhausen.-Itia. 


i,trii 


ll Society. 


3 Xos. 


1, 2. 








\kad.:..'»i.. 


der 


Wissensehaften in 




No*. 







Genoa.— Museo Civiec 
Milan- SocietJi Italia 
Naples.— Societa Real 



slices. Nos. 1, 4, 5. 
Norway. 
Christiania.— Kongelige Norske Fredericks Universitet. Nos. 1, 

Russia. 
MOSCOW.— La Societe Imperialc des Naturalistes. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
St. Petersburg.— L'Academie Imperiale des Sciences. Nos. 1, 4, £ 

Scotland. 
Edinburgh.— Geological Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

Royal Physical Society. Nos. 1, 4. 
The Roval Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
The Royal Observatory. Nos. 1, 3. 
The University. Xos. 1, 3, 4, 5. 
Glasgow. -Geological Society. Nos. 1, 3, 4. 

The University. Nos. 1, 4, 6. 
Aberdeen. The University. Nos. 1, 4, 5. 

Madrid. Institute Geografico y Estatistico. Nos. 1, 4, 5. 

Stockholm. --K"iuh>_i Sv,;n.sk:> Ventens K.i:>o- Akademie. Nos. 1, 

Geneva— Institut National Genevoie. Nos. 1, 4, 5. 

!.— De la SocietC Vaudois des Sciences Naturelles. Nos. I 
1.— Soctete des Sciences Naturelles. Nos. 1, 4, 5. 



,, Asia (Japan) 
of Periodicals) 
A. LIVERSIDGE, \ 



The Society's House, Sydney, August, 



REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS 

(IN ABSTRACT). 



REPORTS EKOM THE SECTIONS. 

(IN ABSTRACT.) 



SECTION A.— ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS. 

PRELIMINARY MEETINGS APRIL, 1S7S. 

Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., in the Chair. 

Ar-'TKi: the continuation of the minutes of the preceding meeting 
of the S.-ction, the election of officers for the current year was 
proceeded with, and Ue- following -entlemen were elected :— Chair- 
man : Mr. H. C. Russell, 15. A., F.R.A.S. Secretary : Mr. G. 
D. Hirst. Committee : Mr. H. G. A. Wuicht, M.R.C.S. ; Mr. 
W. J. MacDonnell, F.R.A.S. ; II, v. Geo. Martin, and Mr. 



legraph, it would in 
I die Ohservatory. 
ks published by Mr. 



that he had not 1 

A paper was read from Mr. John* Tebbut 

on the recent transit of Mercury. A supplen 
read from the .same gentleman on the ivsu 
nation of the difference in longitude betwee 
that of Sydney. 



218 REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 

Mr. G. D. Hirst read a note on his personal observation of the 
remarkable meteor seen on the afternoon of the 1st June. 

The Chairman exhibited a set of eye-pieces, manufactured by 
Hilger, of London, for the large equatorial at the Sydney 
Observatory, ranging from 150 to 1,200 diameters, the lenses 
being composed of quartz. He also exhibited a micrometer for 
the large spectroscope by the same maker. 

A clock was exhibited, the invention of Mr. Barraclough, for 
producing a perfectly uniform motion in the revolving barrel of a 
chronograph. The governing power was produced by two pendu- 
lums swinging at right angles to each other. 



2 AUGUST, 1878. 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., ft&, in the Chair. 

A discussion took place in reference to the clock exhibited at 
the last meeting Mr. Russell stated that he had succeeded in 
greatly simplifying the attachment to the pendulums. The clock 
was being tried on a chronograph at the Observatory, and was 
giving \< ry ;u ; f r,,ry results. 

A paper was read from Mr. John' Tebbutt, F.R. A.S., Windsor, 
on the star " Brisbane, 6183." 

Mr. W. J. MacDonxell, F.R.A.S., read a letter he had received 
from Mr. Neisson urging the establishment of a Selenographical 
Society in Sydney. He also read a paper on observatories in the 
United States. 

The Chairman read a paper on "The Comparison to Sirius." 

6 SEPTEMBER, 1878. 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., fcc, in the Chair. 
The Chairman introduced to the notice of the members a new 
form of triangular micrometer, which ho recommended as pos- 
sessing many nfllinl ll flm i over the old form of ring micrometer. 
It consisted of a metal triangle intnulurcd into the diaphragm 
. thr k'i- of tin- trianu'li' b< ing equal to its height. 
Mr. O. D. Hirst exhibited some crayon drawings of Jupiter 
made during the present opposition ; he read some notes on the 
most remarkable features presented by the planet at the present 



4 OCTOBER, 1S7S. 
Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., &c, in the Chair. 
A paper was read from Mr. W. J. MacDoxnell, F.R.A.S 
star discs and the separating power of telescopes. 

The Chairman read a paper on the results of the trans 
Venus observations published by Captain Tupman. 



A paper was read from Mr. Johx Tebbutt, F.R.A.S., Windsor, 
on the " Geocentric Conjunction of Mars and Saturn on the 1st 
July, 1877." 

The Chairman read a paper on the " Mounting of large Object- 
glasses." He also read a note on a new form of equatorial stand ; 
x model and working drawings. The 
Lspected by the meeting, and the plan proposed met 
with general approval. 



Note on the Planet Uranus. 
By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S. 

[Read before the Astronomical Section, 3 May, 1878.] 
A century has now almost elapsed sin.-c Sir William Herschel 
detected the planetary eharaeter of I'raiius. and during that long 
period the planet has passed only once through its perihelion. 
This perihelion passage o.vunvd about the close of last century. 
The planet, in consequence of its slow angular movement, comes 
into geocentrie opposition to the sun once in every period of 370 
days. Its nearest approach to the earth takes place, of course, 
about the time of the opposition. I,ut it is obvious from a con- 
sideration of the eccentricity of the plan' t's orbit that the oppo- 
sition-distance varies according to the distance of the planet itself 
from its perihelion. Without re-ardnm the small variation due 
to the earth's distance from its own perihelion, it is also obvious 
that when the opposition rakes phme at the same time that the 
planet is in or very close to its perihelion the oppoaition-diatwice 
is at a minimum, and this is the most favourable opportunity for 
the telescopic examination of the planet and its satellites. Now 
this combination of circumstances will soon take place ; the planet 
has, in fact, for tin past fort\ y< i.rs been gradually approaching 
the earth at each successive opposition. It will lie remembered 
that in the newspapers I pointed out a somewhat similar circum- 
stance in connection with the pianet Mars previously to its oppo- 
sition last year. The heliocentric longitude of Uranus at the last 
opposition (15 February. Ie7>) was 117 L'.Y, and that of the peri- 
helion, according to Chambers's Descriptive Astronomy, ISO 7, p. 38, 
is 167° 30', and as the heliocentric motion of the planet is at pre- 
sent about 4 : ( ; d ■ ■_ ; period, it follows that the 
opposition of March, 1882, will fall the nearest to ■:. 



the perihelion and aphelion distances expressed in parts of the 



earth corresponding 
perihelion and aphel 
these values I dedu< 



mean distance from the •■ •' the British Ex- 

pedition for the 01 i - t I Mi r \ t nus, 1874, namely, 

93,375,000 miles, we have for the real minimum and maximum op- 
position-distances 1,615 and 1,781 millions of miles respectively, 



giving a difference of 166 millions of miles. This difference cer- 
tainly does not form a great proportion of the whole distance, but 
it is sufficient to indicate that Uranus is now in the most favour- 
ble part of its orbit for telescopic observation, and this favourable 
combination of circumstances will increase till 1882, after which it 
will diminish. 

Another result of the conditions I have thus pointed out is the fact 
that the planet i act to the naked eye at each 

successive opposition. It can. even now that several weeks have 
elapsed since its |y set D without a telescope. 

At the present time it is nearly on the same meridian of right 
ascen.i un AV ith Xu (, )L .mi .andahuut forty-five minutes of arc north 
of that star. Both stars hem-: i-mbmivd within the field of the 
finder of my equatorial. I had a L'ood opportunity last evening, 
April 24th, of c > ! • 

appeared to be exactly equal: if £h< 

inferiority was perhaps with the planet. The British Association 
Catalogue of S,:i77 stars fur 1 >•">() and the I'.S. Naval Observatory 
Catalogue of 10.U.-.S Mars for 1.OJ0 Loth -ive f..> as the magnitude 
of v Leonis so rln I . , i„ 1Vl ,n v !•- i* -arded as'a hir- 



of time west of the place assigned to it by the old Tables of Bouvard, 
which have been employed in the computations of the Nautical 
Almanac down to the end of 1876. Observations taken last even- 
ing, however, showed it to be almost precisely in the place deduced 
from Professor Xewcomb's new Tables since employed for the 
Ephemeris in the Fautical Almanac. 



Observatory, Windsor, 25 April, 



On the Longitude of Sydney Observatory. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. 
[Read before the Astronomical Section, 3 May, 1878.) 
The members present this evening are probably all aware of 
the extreme difficulty of finding the longitude by astronomical 
observations alone, that is, by observations of the moon's change 
of position, due to her motion" To those *ho have not been in the 
habit of discussing lunar observations, it may be worth while to 
say that an error made in observing the moon's right ascension 
(taking the moon's avenge change in right ascension) is magnified 
some twenty-five times in the resulting error of longitude ; thus, an 
error of observation of the moon of only one-fifth of a second 
would produce an error of 5s. in the longitude, and if the observa- 
tion were made when the moon was changing her right ascension 
slowly the error would he much greater. All the refinements of 
modern instruments are required for such delicate work as the 
determination of longitude from observations of the moon ; but 
there are other obstacles in the way which are still more difficult 



Mr. Breen, 
noon's right 



,ted, that 
as on the 



eye and on the ear, is not the same when the moon is observed 
with the eye as when a star is observed witi the eye. The evi- 
dence of this is given in the following numbers : — 

"By observations of the first limb of the moon from 1847, May 
16, to 1848, May 28 :— 

The mean of 45 errors of moon's tabular R A., 

by Mr. Dunkin, is plus 0-53 sees. 

The mean of 35 errors, by Mr. Breen is plus 0'99 

Excess of Mr. Breen plus 04G sees. 

" By observations of the second limb of the moon through the 

The mean of 33 errors by Mr. Dunkin is ... plus 0-50 sees. 
The mean of 2 7 errors 1 >y Mr. Breen is plus -80 sees. 

Excess of Mr. Breen plus -30 sees. " 

-Introduction, « Greenwich Ob-rvuioiis, 18 18," page 70. 

Here then we have a dim r nee bet™ n obs mors which would 



re to make to-night on 
f Sydney Observatory, 
myself — a difference 



' -■ ; ■' '•'..';.■! 

•■■>tt from -IS observations of the moon, taken 
10. and 1 <r <\, and compared with 
davs at ( hveiiu iclu or the Cape of Good Hope. 



, : : : ; , 

y seven, giving for this year a mean longitude of 



longitude of Sydney. In 1872 the number of comparisons 
between Sydney and Greenwich from cloudy weather and other 



Ii. 4m. 51 -08s. In 1873 fourteen comparisons were obtained, 
1 the mean longitude derived was lOh. 4m. 51*07. In 1874 
rteen comparisons were obtained, and the mean longitude 
rived is lOh. 4m. 50-47. For subsequent years I * 
eived the moon observations 
the result of my own observ; 
; observations at Greenwich- 



1874 ... 50-47 

Giving a mean 10 4 50.806 
which differs by 5 -01s. from that determined by the Rev. W. 
Scott, although the same instrument and method of observation 
were used by both of us : and it is therefore obvious that between 
the Rev. W. Scott and myself there is a personal equation when 
observing the moon different from that between us when observing 
stars. Just as has been found to be the ease at Greenwich, tin- 
quantity is really a wry small one— only 0^o — which produces 
this difference of 5s. in the longitude, and I am not surprised t<> 
find it; forbetween us, when observing stars, there was a difference 
of 0.37s. 
^ It must not, however, be forgotten that there, is very great 

made at Greenwich oil ; ,]\ jms-ible occasions f.>r determining the 
moon's true place for comparison with the Nautical Almanac pre- 
dictions, vary in a very remarkable degree, and prove beyond 
question that extreme care is necessary in observing the moon. 

Now, turning to other sources for data upon the longitude of 
Sydney, we have first and most important, the longitude of 
Melbourne ; this, Mr. Ellery has found from a large number of 
moon observations to be 9h.*39m. 54 -80s. ; a very careful deter- 
mination of the difference in longitude between the two observa- 
tions by means of the telegraph lines makes it :Mni. 55-77s„ and 
this added to 9h. :59m. 5 l : 80s. gives us lOh. 4m. 50'57s. as the 
longitude of Sydney. 

In 1874 Major Palmer, while in New Zealand with the Transit 
of Venus Expedition, found the longitude of "Wellington, New 
Zealand, to be llh. 39m. 4 81s. and as soon as the New 
Zealand cable was laid the Cal.de Company courteously placed the 
cable at our disposal for the purpose of determining the difference 
of longitude between Sydney and Wellington, the cable being 
connected with the land lines at each end, so that the signals went 



were therefore exchanged between the Venerable Archdes 
Stock, B.A., and myself, with the following result: — From 
Wellington to Sydney, lh. ."4m. 15-35*. : Sydney to Wellington, 
Ih. 34m. 16-64s. But it appears that the signals received at 
Wellington from Sydney were received by an assistant, whose cry 
as soon as he saw the signal from Sydney, was compared with the. 
clock by Archdeacon Stock, and I quite agree with the view of 
Archdeacon Stock— that in such a process time must have been 
lost, and it does not appear that any attempt was made to deter- 
mine how much was so lost ; as the signals were received and 
recorded on the chronograph at Sydney by one observer, it is more 
than probable that the result so obtained is the more correct of 
the two. I therefore adopt, as has been done by Archdeacon 
Stock, lh. 34m. 15-35s. as the difference between Sydney and 
Wellington observatories, and subtracting this from Major 
Palmer's longitude, we have 10b. 4m. 41) -4 Gs. as the resulting 
longitude of Sydney. We thus have four values of the longitude 
of Sydney. 

Rev. W. Scott 10 4 45-79 

Mr. Russell 50 81 

Mr. Ellery (Melbourne) 50-57 

Major Palmer (New Zealand) 49*46 
And I have no doubt that these differences may all be accounted 
for by personality in observing the moon, and the question is 
naturally asked which is right, but it is impossible to say, and the 
question must, I fear, be left unanswered until the "difference 
nhall have been determined by the use of the telegraph lines. It 
is very much to be regretted that the various transit of Venus' 
parties did not combine and do this important work when they 
were in the Pacific Ocean. Probably it will be long before such 
a number of trained observers will be again on the spot to do this 
work, and the cost of doing it now would be considerable. 

I have only to say in conclusion that in future the longitude of 
Sydney Observatory will be assumed to be 10b. 4m. 50'81s. 



Note on the Transit of Mercury, on May 6th, 1878. 

By John Tebbutt, F.RAS. 

[Read before the Astronomical Section, 13 June, JS78.] 

A transit of Mercury across the sum's disc occurred on the 6th of 

Mav last, astrommv.-><! ti,n». -Tiie in-ress h.ok place before the sun 
rose, so that the early part of tlm transit was not seen here. Owing to 
the presence of clouds the e-ress, unforhmatelv, was not com- 
pletely observed by me. The fog having cleared off and the 
clouds having partially removed, I obtained the first view of the 
planet about 19h. 58m. with my 3 .[-inch refractor. At this 



Astronomical 
I by me was 
very difficult 



li. 48m. 41 -3s. 
May 8th that 
it the Sydney 



REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 227 

me anomalous is the circumstance that the earliest estimation 
of the geometrical enincidem o of limbs .should have been made 
with the largest telescope, and the latest with the smallest tele- 
scope. Considering the small tiiiiieulty which the observers 
encountered with regard to the ligament. "one might suppose that 
the order of the estimated contacts at Sydney would have been 
precisely the inverse of that stated to have been observed. The 
diminishing thread ot light between the limbs should have been 
seen last by the largest telescope. The anomaly may, perhaps, be 



Note on the Star "Brisbane, 6183." 
By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S. 
[Bead before the AstronomJ-,,' S.r-:„ n , ? August, 1S78.] 
While engaged last evening in micrometer observations of stars in 
the neighbourhood of the Variable which 1 discovered in the con- 
stellation Ara in November last, ! was struck with the fact that 
Brisbane, 6183, a star recorded at Parramatta between the years 
1822 and 1826 as of the seventh magnitude, had either disappeared 
or become almost invisible in my equatorial of 4 J- inches aperture. 
I succeeded in identifying the stars numbered 6142, 6172, 6177, 
6181, 6196, and 6220 in the Brisbane catalogue, but the only stars 
now to be seen in the catalogued position of 6183 are two or three 
excessively faint ones. They are barely distinguishable in my 
telescope even on a brilliant sky with the moon absent, and it is 
therefore impossible to determine their position with the micro- 
meter; this, however, might be dune with rhe I 1 1-inch refractor of 
the Sydney Observatory. It is quite possible that the catalogued 
position of 6183 may be an erroneous observation of 6196, the 
right ascension being almost exactly two minutes of time too small. 
The south polar distances in the catalogue agree within a fraction 
of a second. 

The non-appearance of the star may be thus accounted for, but 
in the meantime it will be well to record the fact in the Proceed- 
ings of the Astronomical Section of the Royal Society. The star 
is not to be found in Lacaille's catalogue. 

Windsor, June 28th, 1878. 



Notes on Observatories in the United States. 
By W. J. MacDonnell, F.R.A.S. 

L have recently received Messrs. Andre and Angot's work on Ob- 
servatories in America, " L'Astronomie Pratique et Les Observa- 
toires en Europe et en Amerique, 3'"" partie, Pari., 1877," in which 
Hie marvellous success of astronomical pursuits in that country, 
and present high position of the science in the United States, are 
graphically described ; and perhaps this Section will kindly bear 
with me whilst I make a few remarks on the subject. To the 
student of astronomy in Australia the lesson taught by the past 
experience of the States is one of great interest, and one from which 
we ought to gain much in advancing our favourite science. 

The progress of astronomy in North America was at first very 
slow. No results worthy of record are noted during the eighteenth 
century, with the exception, perhaps, of a few observations of the 
transit of Venus, 1769; and, in spite of the advocacy of John 
Quincy Adams and others. Congress was decidedly opposed to the 
construction or maintenance of a permanent astronomical observa- 
tory. 

The first attempt to found an c 
was that of Professor A. Hopkin 

Williams College, Massachusetts, soon after the apparition ot 
Halley's comet in 1835. Other observatories soon followed, viz., 
the Hudson Observatory, Western Reserve College, Ohio, 1838, 
and the Philadelphia High School, 1840, and the first State observa- 
tory—that of the military college of West Point— was completed 
in the same year. Astronomy had by this time taken a firm hold 
in the States, and Congress withdrawing its objections, the mag- 
nificent national observatory at Washington (now known as the 
United States Naval Observatory) was commenced ; and although 
little more than thirty years have elapsed since its existence, it now 
ranks as a worthy peer of the grand observatories of Europe, and 
is a brilliant instance of the commendable perseverance towards 
success of American astronomers-. 1 will now pass on to the erec- 
tion of the Cincinnati Observatory. En 1842 the late Professor O. 
-d- Mitch. -11 gave a scries of lectures on astronomy (since repub- 
lished under the title of " Orbs of Heaven, 1 ' one of the most 
fascinating astronomical works ever printed). The enthusiasm 
raised by this course of lectures was promptly availed of by 
Mitchell, and a Cincinnati Astronomical Society was formed, the 
object of which was to furnish the city with an observatory. 
$1 1,000, in shares of §25 each, were subscribed, a site was given 
b 7 a citizen, and Mitchell was deputed to visit Europe for the 



purchase of a telescope. He secured o 
inches aperture — one of the finest then i 
$9,500. The observatory was completed in 1845, and at once began 
a career of usefulness which reflected honor both on founders and 
managers. The next observatory to come under our notice is that 
of Harvard College, (.""nml »i-i< Ilt- -, Massachusetts. This is perhaps 
the most famous of all the American " Light-houses of the skies," 
as J. Q. Adams calls them. A meeting of the leading citizens of 
Boston was held in March, 1843, to determine on the construction 
of an observatory. The question was settled in the affirmative, 
and $20,000, to defray expenses, were at once subscribed. It is a 
noteworthy fact that several Insurance Companies were subscribers 
for considerable stuns. The observatory was I milt on ground pur- 
chased by the Harvard University, a splendid refractor of 15 inches 
aperture (then only equalled by the Pulkova telescope) procured, 
and active opera, bdance of the two Bonds, were 

begun in 1847. It is unnecessary to recapitulate the splendid ser- 
vices rendered to astronomy by the magnificent observatory, which 
is still in active operation. 

Another well-known observatory, that of Dartmouth College, 
Hanover, New Hampshire, founded in is:,:',, is due principally to 
the liberality of one individual, Dr. <1. Shattuek, who supplied the 

the necessary instruments. This observatory is now under the 
direction of Mr. C. A. Young, who utilizes the Q'-inch Alvan 
Clark equatorial in spectroscopic r- ■■ ' 

In 1860 a certain number of the inhabitants of Pittsburg and 
Alleghany city. Penns\ hania, undertook to provide an observatory 
for that city. A 13-inch equatorial was secured and the erection 
of a suitable building was commenced ; but funds failing, the whole 
was about to be seized for debt, win n a rich citizen of Pittsburg, 
Mr. William Thaw (qy. Shaw), paid the debt due and completed 
the observatory, at a cost of §40,000. To secure the future 
of the observatory, he handed it over to the University of Pitts- 
burg (Western University), with the sole condition that an efficient 
Id be provided for by the University. Professor 
known for his solar "studies, is now 'in charge of 



REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 231 

In December, 1862, the Professors of the University of 
Dearborn, Chicago, having learnt that Fitz, of New York, had a 
fine objective of 14|- inches for sale, started a subscription for its 
purchase, and succeeded in getting $20,000. A Mr. Moyne 
was deputed to negotiate the purchase of the object-glass, but 
hearing en rout that AI.au Clark had a splendid equatorial of 
ISi inches aperture, and 2."> tV, ; focal length, on his hands, ordered 
by the University of Mississippi, but owing to the war of seces- 
sion, the University was unable to complete the purchase, Mr. 
Moyne at once secured the 18i-inch, at a cost of $18,000, com- 
pletely mounted. A wealthy pubiie-.-pirited citizen of Chicago, 
Mr. J. Y. Scammon, promptly came forward with funds necessary 
for the installation of the telescope and the support of an observer. 
The city of Albany (State of New York) possesses a first-class 
observatory, also founded bv private means. The total cost was 
over $200,000, of which Mrs. Dudley contributed 8105,000 in the 
name of her deceased husband, and hence the managers of the 
establishment have given it her name—" The Dudley Observatory." 
Within the last few years, the United States Naval < (lava- 
tory has added to the already fine collection of instruments it 
Possesses, a refractor by Alvan < lark, the ohjeet -glass of which 
is 26 inches in diameter, exceeding l>v 1 inch the great Newall 
refractor, made by the eminent English maker, the late Thomas 
Cooke. But even with this magniiicent telescope American 
ambition is not satisfied ; for finding that Vienna is on the point 
of obtaining a 27-inch achromatic by Crubb, of Dublin, a still 
larger one must be secured. Mr. James Lick, of California, has 
devoted $700,000 for the establishment of an observatory, to 
be furnished with the largest telescope procurable. Mr. 
M'Cormick, of Chicago, has announced his intention of founding 
an observatory in connection with the University of Virginia, to 
contain amongst other instruments a 26|-inch equatorial. And 
finally, Alvan Clark and Sons have a disc of glass from Feil (of 
Paris) in hand for an object-glass of 2V»-S inches aperture, which 
Mr. Winchester is having made for New Haven, at his expense. 
The private observatories of ilutierfui-d, Ih-.-iper, [lurnham.and 

detailed in Me.-rs. Andre ji.d \ . 

: there anything in th<' !,..-•■ rv -i Aninican astronomy 



wld.-li i 



applicable 1 



vernment ( 
I Annapolis (the lat 
iblished for the inst] 
es in the States ar 
pe of a public su" 
o appeal to the 



our worthy Chairman will testify that much of the recent advance 
in astronomy is due to our American cousins. We have in 
Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide, observatories provided with 
fine instruments, thanks to the openhandcd liberality of our 
colonial Governments, to whom all honour is due for their support 
of science in these young countries, but ought no effort be made to 
procure a thirty or forty inch telescope for this colony? Have we 
no wealthy citizens desirous of emulating the example furnished 
by their con/nres in the States and establish an observatory with a 
giant telescope? And, again, when small cities in the States, such 
as they were thirty or forty years ago, determined to have their 
own observatories, with as large telescopes as were then procurable, 

our Society sanction, an appeal to the public for the funds to pro- 
cure one of the powerful n. • ■•-: ! • 
broach the idea (probably premature) for the consideration of the 
Astronomical Section of the Royal Society. 

Another thing may be considered : when the demand for large 
telescopes commenced in America, Alvan Clark and Sons, Fitz- 
Young and others, came forward to supply the wants of the 
community. The quality of the work performed by these makers 
may be judged from the fact that not only have they supplanted 
foreign opticians in their own country, but their instruments 
) of the Clarks) are sought after by English obser- 
> knows then, but that should a local demand arise, the 
same results will follow, and some An ti Han Alvan Clark, or a 
Cooke, or a Grubb. emerge from his obscurity and find a fitting 
field for his talents. 



.-specially tho: 
ers. Whoki 



iv in-: L'mskv. Si \rr.s. 



: 



: -/ '■ .•■-■■ 



U. S. Naval Observatory ... 26-inch.] Equatorial. 

Westpointdo 9.?,, Williams (V.lpge 7-inch. 



(lo.r^ti.wn College 
Harvard do. 
Tuscaloosa University 

Shelly do.... 



'■' - -: 

„ Rutherford's 13 

Dr. Draper's (reflectors) 15^3 

Projected Observatories. 



The Glasgow University ... 12* , 



4: 



Alleghany do. 
Scientific School, Sh 
Dearborne Univ< 

Alfred a Cen'tre !" 
Lehigh University 



Clark's Companion of Sirius. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.RA.S. 

[Read beforr th" Agronomical S-rfhn, 2 AvjuM, 1878.] 

Several communications have appeared in Nature upon this 

interesting object, which was discovered in January, 1862, and 



'. then by Bond 1 
res have 
March, 






■ 10'- 



Ihvk : 







"d '•..:.;':': 


.,5:v; 


,,. 


o*~. 


iH ;•••••••■ 


ni 


10-10 
10-78 


861 




Bo nJ . 


iH 


2 


11-20 


63 


100 
10-97 


Washington. 


W' 


m 


% 




10-83 


Burnham. 



path which 






Yet though about half tin 1 • > v.,-h a Ii-ht aln...,t it. 

iinit.lv less than tlint of Sirius. What can he the cause of sucl 
a difference it is hard to conjecture, and it does not seem probabh 
that the spectroscope will aid us in answering the question. Tin 
spectrum of Sirius has b, en frequently « xamined, but there is sc 
much light about the primary that there seems no hope of catching 
the faint rays from the companion ; (estimated at 10 magnitude 
in the presence of such splendour. 



I have frequently been struck when observing Sirius with the 
planet-like disc of the companion, and I find that on the 7th 
March, 1876, I have made this note : " Small star appears as a 
hard clear disc outside the rays of the large star." 

The following measures have all been taken by me with the 
large equatorial. 



Measures of the close companion (Clark's) of Sirius, made with 
the 11^ in. equatorial, power 280. 


Date. | Distance. 


An,., 


Re mark , 


28 Dec, 1875... 


(Hill! 11-02 
0-590 10 57 
0-624 ii -in 
0-650 1165 
0610 10-93 

11-07 


54- 6 
55-16 

55 ■ 5 
54 46 

54 53 


Fine night ; definition good. 



February 17, 1876. Measures of Sirius with ll. 1 ,, 



V,, 


Distance. 














17 Feb., 1876.. 






Fine clear night after cloudy 

weather; deiiiuti-m mode- 




0-636 11-40 


55 14 




0-652 n -co 




rately good. 












0-634 1 1-37 


55- 5 






0-643 11-53 


54-40 






11-52 


5446 





March 7, IS 7 'I :' ' ';:<, 11J, power i 



7 March, IS 




9iM 


55 40 


Light haze o 


-or the sky 


; defi- 














;■■;! 






























I 0-605 






Haze for 








0-568 


1018 


54-58 


star and interferes W 


mob- 




1 


10-31 


55-14 









April t 


, 1876. Measures of Sirius, 11 J, power 180. 


Date. [ Distance. 


An*. 


K Cmark , 






f)4-r>7 
5.V.-)7 

54-37 
55- 5 


Fine calm night, but very 
Measures of distance not satis- 



The Triangle Micrometer. 
By H. C. Kussell, B.A., F.RA.S. 

[Head before the Astronomical Section, G September, 1878.] 
Most observers who have had to observe the positions of small bodies, 



ruiiiris ti.r iiist.'.n.-f. !i;i\c learii.'.i to dislike the ring 
for although it gives differences of time with tolerable accuracy, the 
differences in declination arc most unsatisfactory when found and 
very troublesome to compute : when therefore I had occasion to 
use it recently the old feeling of dissatisfaction came back to me, 
and set me thinking whether some more convenient form might 



theless the advantages me many and th.-y :ir«- Mill further increased 
by making the figure a triangle. I therefore adopted the one in 
which the ba.-r of the triangle is exactly equal to the height, which 
is the most convenient form for the reduction of the results, and 
has, as you will at once see, this property, that the difference in 
time of transit between two bodies crossing it, converted into arc, 
is their difference in declination. Of coifrse, if the observations 
are made away from the equator the difference must be multiplied 
by the cosine of the star's declination: and since the determination 
of this distance depends upon the observation of time in a triangle 
so proportioned that the differences in time are equal to those in 
declination, the declinations are as valuable as the right ascensions, 

use the triangle is very convenient: by allowing a star to run along 
the base while the instrument, is at rest it can at once be set in 
position, so that its base is a parallel of declination and its per- 
pendicular one of right ascension. 

If the transits are observed at ingress and egress for each side, 
four transits are obtained from which to get the mean. 



The sides of the triangle may be tested 
run along, which if they are not straight 
irregularity. 



fc might be of 8 



In the absence of a 
in estimating angles of position «*^ 
transit may be made to indicate the distance, and t 
triangle supply six known angles of position, as she 



When the line O.M. is adjusted by the parage 
des are in the following angles of position : — 
M to A Angle of posith 



Before concluding 1 would like to draw \ ■■; ■ 
lianqe in Saturn's b. Its since last v. ar : tie re are two dark bands 
t about 45° declination, one on either side of the equator. 



during his Opposition, 1878. 
By G. D. Hirst. 



j; 1 >efore you a few sketch e 



acknowledging 
nt record of P the 



scopes, there is one peculiarity which has 
i year. You will perhaps remember that 
i<>n the strange- discrepancy in the colour 
own in the refractor and reflector. 
ur of the broad equatorial hand in the sil- 
a rich t.-iwnv orange; vou will see the colour 



matures of the planet. This 
•f the observatory refractors 
as confirmed by Mr. Russell, 



from the reflector, with those : 



this difference has vanished ; the northern equatorial belt appears 
in huh descriptions of telescope of a bright coppery red, and the 
southern half ochre-yellow, inch' ' 



untable here ; for if the 

r and refractor two years 
it this year makes matters 
n-' at tutu iv oppositions 



last year what was hefm 
brightest part of the phi 
two belts. This appear; 



■ equatorial band there is a 
Is quite round the planet, f 
on. I have suspected a pur] 



evening of the 31st 
doubt of a rich dark 

observed any of tin- small white spots that have been 
previous oppositions, nor any of the minute and 
5: ones which I saw so repeatedly in 187G ; larger 
spots of a very dusky hue hive been seen on the 
d this year, but they are evidently not of the same 

ling of the 24th August there was a transit of No. 
I did not see the ingress, but ai about 94.") p.m. I 
planet with a 4^-in. l'eiraetor belonging to Mr. A. 
vas immediately struck with what appeared to be an 



lege 


t.f the plivM.-al .• ( ,nditi«.i,s of Jupiter 1 






time 


s, as I have once before s 


are 


not after all but drawing " clouds 0; 



.-?!; ■ ., , r whether we 
ner sky ;" yet 

a certain permanent ■ which might lead us to suppose that all is 
not vapour, and if the result of many year-' watching should U 

the establishment of ey.-le ,,£ ehanges'ou the surface of our "giant 
planet," a great step will be gained, and our labour well repaid. 



On Star-discs and the separa 
By W. J. MacDon 



; power of Telescope 



tliat of the planets. It is', nevert 
'I«"'i'-" '-J npti-.-al laws, explainable 

varyin- - , a „ Hn- to tli i tur« 
instrument used ; and it is a que 

conditions vrlji.lt govern the size of 1 



Ur. C. K I1( ,t t , who i 
■scs of stars, employing 



! i • •' ■ i ■ '■■■■■!'■!; 

diameter of the disc as the aperture of the telescope 
, thus agreeing with the results derived a fortiori from 



the disc and rings 
>rds, the larger the 
bat of the apparent 

oloselj with Mr. 



Abstract of the Results of Transit of Venus. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.E.A.S., Observatory. 
[Read before the Astronomical Section, 4 October, 1878.] 



mbera of the 
suite of the 



bright (Dr. 



Livcrsidge, 
right : of the 



four Victorian observers, only one gets double weight, and Adelaide, 
with four observers, two 'are struck out by the weighting, 
and one gets double v.-rigiit. So that Australia, if we include 

in both cases more than one-third, and this is no "-nail honor for 
allied by the whole 



".i, :,.l,-t! 


lird of the observ 


.e'rl'luliin- i 


uean solar parallax 




"•846, or a mean 


30,006! 




iptain Tupm 




-11. i,Mieh;;n 


, Wright, and Al 


ring the p:tn 


illax or increasing 



Xcv.- South Wales the a 

late; and it is a fact that here we were all favo 

Tt is to ho regretted that the photographic observations have 
aot yielded better results. The use of photography was urged as 
m experiment by many astronomers in Europe, and the wisdom 
tvhich induced the British observers generally to combine it with 
ither means of observation as a means of filling up the time 



e:hi ie_', and 
, v.Lirh, had 

1 l.\ tin 1 few 



Note on the Geocentric Conjunction of Mars and 
Saturn, on July i, 1879. 
By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S. 

As the present meeting of the Astronomical Section of the Royal 
Society is the last of the series for the current session and the 
members do not again meet till the middle of next year, I think 
it will be desirable to draw their attention to the remarkable 

Mars and Saturn. 1 f nd fi >m :. i apj , » I , . . alculation for the 
centre of the earth, thru the eonjtm.-iinn in right ascension will 
take place at oh. :>0m. in the nx.niin- ..f Julv 1, 1*79, meantime 



Some Remarks on the Mounting of large 

Object-glasses. 

By II. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S. 



as before, but each thousandth of an inch that the lenses were sep- 
arated made the definition worse. In this case the curve of the 
second surface lias .1 .smaller radius than the third, so that the lenses 
put together without foil touch in the centre, and the maker sent 
them out with pieces of foil ju.si thick enough to support the 

a beautiful batch of Newton's rim:s marked the point of contact. 

These lenses, as usual, were supported only on three points, 
but in this case I found that with full aperture and high powers 
there was a decided tendency to a triangular figure in the rays 

directly on a plain hra , ring touching all round, and I put three 
more pieces of foil between those placed by the maker, so that the 
lenses were supported on six points inside, and on the brass rings 
outside ; this nearly cured the triangular figures, and I determined 
to put a piece of paper in the form of a ring so as to support the 

paper was to be III inches in diameter, and ,\.,th of an inch 
broad, and more important still, -x.u-tlv 0-010 inch thick ; the 



•01 Of) inch, and this 

his ; now the lenses 



You will ol.-v I've thai tli- dithnuro in thicknesses of tin foil on 
the two experiment* Lb only 00015 inch, yet in one case the lenses 
touch in the middle and will spin as if not resting on the foil at 
all, and in the other case thev do not touch, nor will they together : 
as v. ,- , , |y supported in the centre, bend under 

lenses as now mounted cannot be more than 0-0005 inch, and yet 
the two lenses, when pressed in their centres, will not together 
bend that small quantity. 



new form of Equatorial Mounting. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.RA.S. 



Hie question— How shall a teles 
that_ has not, in any of the answt 
received its rinal answer; and ye 

the number of mountings whirl! have 
comes to this : that each form has 



used by Mr. Grubb in mounting th 
■t"d uhirh lias in principle been rej 
reflector at the Paris Observatory, 

heavens ; but the quantity. .f metal i, 

•''.-id |\ rllnr,,,,,-,,., l' lV: .{ ,!,,. ,,.!,..,. 

of the equatorial axis, and in ordr 
place, the tube must be made rigi< 



<luced, and that is the extreme distance from the point of support 
at which the telescope is hung. Now it has occurred to me that a 
modification of the equatorial mounting is possible, which avoids 
hoth thes. ditliculties r,\ Lcriticing : m. I jut of the range 

sacrifice of the ability to see objects on the horizon is of little or 
no consequence, for such an instrument is worse than u.-eless for 
observing objects far from the zenith. Much more can be seen 

appears to me sufficient reason* for the proposed curtailment of 
range, without considering the st-rious ether the horizontal position 
has on the adjustment of the large mirror, so serious, indeed, as in 
most cases to oblige the observer to readjust the i ' 



plan proposed then is, to make a polar axis, the lower 
which is similar to that in an ordinary equatorial stand, 
3m that point upwards it branches into two arms, wide 
!i apart to allow the telescope room to move between them. 
2se arms the telescope is supported, like a transit instrument, 
centre of gravity, so that no counterpoise is required : and 
be being supported at two points need not be made so strong 
he ordinary mounting. Now so far as we have Mr. Label's 
but my proposed alteration takes the two sides of the polar 
eyond the point at which the telescope is supported, about 

g of the polar axis. With proper care, such a bearing may 

it- sulli.-ientlv accurate for the purpose —I think us accurate 
nnimary Wearing audit would uork quite a. f.v.-ly. A 

,v the axis of th.- t ill..- (deciin.ation axis) is made to hisect 



there is less work in its construe 
trouhie in putting it together, less r 
greater facility of transport, and < 



rules vo.it apply here ; but there are others 
factory which make the adjustment of tl 
trouble than the ordinary equatorial stand. 



then turn the polar axis ; 

by the tube turning from six hours before meridian to 
after in its own diameter. To do this, put the tel 
directed, and the equatorial axis in the plane of the 
then bring an object i > touch the side of the open end of 
turn the axis 180° ; the other side of the tube should i 
same object; if not, move it until, on repeating the bet 
telescope points to its own pole, and the 



read 90°. 


1 






Now, whei 


i this is adjusted, and i 


die telescope tried on 


a star. 


and il liserved declination does 1101 


: agree with the tabula 




tion, the pola 








Having no 
transits of t* 


.. the polar axis at the t 


tant^rom'tl'm ^plater 


'Si! 




e greater the d,' , 






by each of th 


.■s^s^thejam^nMnn, 


ll/I'Cv;;';: 1 ";,' 


ct for 


llZ ( ^t kii ' 


If V.ar i. 


ion wire, instrument 


is on 


meridian, if, 








When in n 
















Maker mm 


A set the declination iixi: 


? at right angles to the 


polar 


* Should there be a doubt about tt 


ie polar and equ-itoria' 


I ax- 3 




■ ■■-■■■; 






given to both e 


n-Isof the tube at the same 1 








it would be impossible to get both ends of the tube t 


o tarn 



SECTION B.— CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY, and by amal- 
gamation with Section C, GEOLOGY and PALAEON- 
TOLOGY. 
The first meeting of the session was held on 12th April, when Dr. 
Leibius was elected Chairman. Mr. Dixon, Hon. Secretary, and 
Messrs. Bensusan, Sleep, M'Cutcheon, and Gipps, members of 
Committee, and the meetings for ensuing session were fixed for 
the third Wednesday of each month. 



]YEDXESDAY, J J MAY, 1S7S. 
Dr. Leibius in the Chair. 

Dr. Leibius exhibited : (1) Some very nice specimens of 
bismuth-gold, from the Cloncurry, North Queensland, about 500 
miles from Townsville. A large sample of this ore. weighing over 
60 ounces, was, a short time ago, imported into the Mint, and 
found to consist of about 10 per cent, coarse nuggetty gold (assay- 
ing 98 per cent, fine gold) and earthy matter, with little quartz, 
containing a large quantity of earl.enate of bismuth. Very fine 
gold was largely disseminated throughout the whole sample, which 
yields over 21 per cent, of pure gold. It is stated that bismuth 
exists in large quantities in the above-mentioned locality. (2) A 
specimen, consisting of conglomerate of crystals of carbonate of 
lime, richly interq.u -. .1 wiih gold; also, (3), small specimen of 
quartz, almost covered withhold. Both the hist two specimens 
came from a place about 1<S miles distant from Ravenswood, 
Queensland, from a depth of 100 feet. They were presented to 
the Mint by Mr. C. Hansen, and exhibited by the kind per- 
mk-ion of the Deputy Master. 

Mr. Dixon showed a piece of glass having a curious exfoliation 
on its surface. The glass was a circular piece cut from a crown 
glass flask, which had been used as a wash bottle, and in which 
water had been fi <\\\ i i\ boil d during eighteen months. On 
placing the piece on a hot plate, the temperature of which was 
probably between 300 and 400 degrees ¥., the interior surface 
developed numerous radial cracks, Let ween many of which a film 
of glass separated and curled up, covering the surface with a 
multitude of spiculse, some of which were 2 inch in length. 
They were rather less than 01 inch in thickness, and were quite 
transparent, but it seemed as if the long continued action of boiling 
water had altered the glass to that depth by removing some of the 
alkali, and that the portion so altered separated from the remainder 
•■. re umstances described. 

Messrs. Bensusan and Sleep were appointed Curators of the 
Mineral Cabinet. 



WEDXESDAY, 10 JUXE, 
Lapsed from want of a quorum. 



WEDXESDAY, 17 JULY,' 1878. 

Dr. Leibius in the Chair. 

The Chairman laid on the table a letter from Mr. Gipps, M.E., 

ivitiHj,' the members of the Section to visit Mount Prospect and 
i.T<*t th" ideological formation of the district. 

Mr. Dixon exhibited a specimen of rich silver ore submitted to 
"*J <• mina n by tl I) , uti e„t of Mines Tin samph 



April 23 
These results show tl 
the filtered Thames i 
and Vauxhall Comnn 



WEDXESDAY, 21 AUGUST, 187S. 

Dr. Leibius in the Chair. 

The Chairman reported that he and several members of the 

Section had visited Mount Prospect on the invitation of Mr. 

( 'ipps, and laid on the table m.m iw:.- . f .Ii rite, &c, which had 

been obtained. 

Mr. Bexsusan exhibited a specimen of silicate of copper 
(Chrysocolla) accompanied by native copper and red oxide, from 



IS SEPTEMBER, 187S. 
Dr. Leibius in the Chair. 
Mr. Dixon brought under the notice of the meeting a process 
for making phosphor* >u s arid. Having occasion to make some 
of the acid, he used the process by Schiff, by acting on phospho- 
rus with sulphate of copper, but found the sulphuric acid set free 
in the reaction to be a cause of considerable trouble. He therefore 
tried whether oxide of copper \v..uld \ icld the arid liy the equation 

3CuO + 3H 2 + 5P = 2H 3 P0 3 + 3CuP 
and found that by adding phosphorus and oxide of copper in the 
proportions shown by the equation to water, the acid was 
readily produced. The phosphorus was granulated, and the 
mixture put in a stoppered bottle, when the solution soon became 
bluish green, and metallic copper was deposited. The solid matter 
set into a compact mass, which, with oerasiniial shaking, gradually 
disintegrated, and in three weeks tin* solution became colourless, 
and consisted of a pure solution of phosphorous acid. The solid 
• ; .-e..-:. 1 ,,f metallic copper mixed with one or more of the 

higher phosphides; but although the equation thus does not 
repttofetttthe actual reaction, it does so practically, as there re- 

l>r. Li.iiui sst t -, !th' ♦ ..iii< j r. t hcrfront near Tenterfield 

considerable proportion of antimony. 

WEDNESDA Y, 10 OCTOBER, 1S7S. 

Dr. Leibius in the Chair. 

Hi'Jiteen specimens of fossil leaves from Tertiarv hods at 

Dalton, which had been sent by John K. Hume, J'sq., were 

Mr. Benscsax laid on the table a specimen of indurated clay 
from the boring at X'-v/in-tou. from a depth of 1.1">0 feet, show- 
ing a nodule of quartz contain im_ f metallic c a y< r. which had been 
cut through by the diamond horer. The day is similar to that 



Boorook, and read 



Note on the Boorook Silver Ore. 
By W. A. Dixox, F.C.S., F.I. C, Lecturer on CSbemiatry, 



be developed in the Colony, I have though 
interest to lay before you a short resume oi 
the Boorook silver lodes. I have had a 



from the 40ft lr,h ' ". ■ ' t , > .- ud^^pmpr 

tionofeaeh heing -il.onl th. same as the \--x. On sinking 



fimad^totT • "'A hundred 

feet higher up , and the reef is 

"■,]., 2, <\s- IVCf isthlV. f t 



The stone from this reef varies 

picked siM-cimen yielded 

Silver .122oz. L'dwt. 
Gold 18oz. Gdwt. 


considerably in ri< 

Ogrs. per ton. 
lOgrs. „ 


Oth.-i 


contained 10% 
• samples gave 
Silver 
Gold 
Silver 
Gold 


of sulphides, &c. soluble in : 

loz. 4dwt. Ogrs. per ton. 

Bgra. 

20oz. Sdwt. lOgrs. per ton. 
8dwt. lOgrs. 


ands 


tone taken from 


tin 1 thirty feet level, gave 




Silver 
Gold 


42oz. lOdw 
... lOdwt. 


t. <Vrs. per ton. 
19grs. „ 


The i 

Slllph 


nineral matter ir 
ide of silver, ant 


i the picked specimen contained i 
imonite of silver, free silver a) 



small quantities of galena. 

The Golden Age reef appears to hi 
Addison reef, as it is in the same direct line. A sample of the 
Stone taken from the fifty feet level on the reef gave 
98oz. 16dwt. 19grs. per ton. 
loz. 4d\vt. Ogrs. 

from the same lev.-! M 
delivered from the stamper boxes of the machine, gave 
Silver 83oz. 12dwt, 19grs. per ton. 
Gold loz. Odwt Ogrs. 
The whole neighbour] exul appears to contain argentiferous reefs. 
and there have lately been discovered the Golden Crown reef, 
which runs parallel to the Addison, and distant from it about !«' 
chains. A sample of stone from the surface of this reef gave 
Silver 459oz. 16dwt. lOgrs. per ton. 
Gold 5oz. lldwt. Hgrs. 
The silver in this ore is partly in the form of antimonide with 
inanide, sulphid . - - 

The Cornstalk reef, situated about quarter of a mile east of 

the Nil Desperauduin. :itid a mil.; and a half north from Boorook 

station, is two feet wide, and Curran's reef is in the same locality. 

The Woolshed reef is three and a half miles north north-west 

from Boorook, and a sample of the stone yielded 

Silver ftoz. lOdwt. Ogrs. per ton. 
Gold Ooz. Odwt. 19grs. 
Near to this is the Alderman reef, a sample of which from th*" 



REPORTS PROM THE SECTIONS. 257 

Another reef, the Copenhagen, contains a very considerable 
quantity of galena, a sample of the stone yielding 
Lead 13-4% 

Silver 5oz. lfidwt. !S-rs. per ton. 
Gold Ooz. Odwt. lOgrs. 
The method adopted for the treatment of such of the ores as have 
been already washed is cxo vdim_dy crude, much of the silver 
being lost by the imperfection of the process. It seems probable 
indeed that most of the silver which has been hitherto obtained 
is that which is present in the ore in the free state, and that on 
further sinking on the roof when the water level is readied, and 
black un weathered ores only are obtained, the produce by the 
present method would be nil. 

At present the stone after crushing is run over blankets, and 
the material saved on them is subjected to grinding with mercury 
m a Berdan pan, the tailin-s being run into pits, to be saved for 
subsequent treatment. The separal ion of the ore by the blankets, 
* the slime had also been saved, would have been pretty 
successful in the case of the first ores which I saw, but in recent 
specimens the silver is much more minutely disseminated through 

If the contents of the stone t^ing through the battery is com- 
pared with the products, it will be seen that great loss is ex- 
perienced ; thus, a sample of the crushed stuff' gave 
Silver 83oz. 12dwt. 1 9grs. per ton. 
Gold loz. Odwt, Ogrs. „ 

passed through 1 1 I that about half- 



until the < 
hastened b 


rater ia perfectly cle 

f the alum. 


ar, the clarification being much 


In the United States the rich. 
per ton are ground dry, roasted 
■all . L treated by amalgamati 


with from five to ten per cent, of 
on in barrels with scrap iron. 


treated by a direct method, based on the same principle as the 
patio process of Mexico. n.nnely. that ehloride of copper in presence 
of salt converts sulphide of silver into chloride. In Nevada, how- 
ever, the process is hastened by artificial heat, and the reduction 
of the chloride of silver instead of being effected by mercury, is 
effected at the expense of the iron of the grinding pans. The 
process is carried out as follows : --The ore is broken and crushed 


l.:>0i>;<, <.',,i 




to an impalpable powder in a 






ng it through a canvas bag. Two 


pounds of , 


x.lphate of copper a 


nd three pounds of salt or more 



ulp mui 

m, and if the pulp appear.-* thicker 

than at the top, when the hand is 



too much wate 


r added. The 




t is effected the 


mercury filtere 


d to obtain the 



REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 259 

quantity of this metal lias been lost from the cause already stated. 

It may be of some assistance to prospectors to note that silver 
deposits are generally found amongst the ancient stratified rocks, 
as micaceous, quartzi se, and clav slates, limestone, and sandstone 
near granite. All the ,,,-.•../ silver deposits of the world, as at 
the Comstock in Nevada, Tracatecus, and others in Mexico, 
Carpathia, in Europe, and in Bolivia, are found accompanying 
a recent dioritic porphyry (the pi';' of B Lihofen), probably 
of tertiary or post-tertiary age, though resembling ancient rocks. 
This rock is composed of a fine-grained basis, generally greenish, 
but sometimes red, grey, or brown, with embedded crystals of 
olioclase and dark green fibrous hornblende, whilst quartz is 
generally absent. The rock contains much iron and is decomposed 
by weathering. In coming si aim d red with the oxide. 

The silver ore is generally found in quartz, and the surface of 
the veins is usually drusy and much stained with oxide of iron, 
whilst the quartz is often very friable. 



SECTION D.— NATURAL HISTORY AND BOTANY. 

[No report of the meetings of this Section has been sent in.] 



SECTION R- MICROSCOPICAL SCIENCE. 
MONDAY, 1 APRIL, 1878. 
The preliminary meetin-of the session was held on the above date. 
The Rev. George Martin was voted to the Chair. 
The minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. 
The Secretary reported a donation of a number (45) of slides of 
ha i f i Professor Liversidge, previous to his departure for 

The Secretary reported that he had received an answer to his 
letter, addressed to the General Council, requesting the use of the 
room during the recess : and in reply, they had stated that it was not 
considered desirable that the Section should meet during the recess. 

On the motion of Mr. H. G. A. Wright, seconded by Mr. W. 
MacDosxell, the Rev. G. Martin was elected Chairman for the 

Mr. G. D. Hirst tendered his resignation of the office of Secre- 



'.wiiiu- U'-ntlemen w. re declared duly el. eied ;- I >r. M>KKI.% 
. M vcDoNxiiLr., Mr. H. G. A. Wright, Mr. G. D. Hirst. 
as decided that for the present session the meetings of the 
should be held on the evening of the second Monday in 



a preparation of the haustettium (proboscis) of this insect, and also 
a series of drawing of the sua,, magnified about oO diameters. 

The Chairman called the attention of the meeting to a box of 
polishing powder, sold under the title "Oriental Polish,'' which on 
examination proved to bo a diatomacaxms deposit of the purest 

Mr. Pedley exhibited the curious wheel-like plates which form 

the calcareous skeleton of the i-himdoia. fr:>m >-p<rimoiis found in 
Double Bay. 

Dr. Morris showed sponge spicules and <liatoins from Sydney 
water; and Mr. id. Patersox, a preparation of the fumes of 
mercury. 

Mr. W. MacDosxell exhibited one of Seiberfs f.Oth inch 
lenses, and resol 



Swift's upon the improved Hartnach model 



The minu 
Mr. Hirs 

liriild, l; i.-, 



;he placing of a piece of ground glass 
immediately beneath the achromatic condenser, by which means 
he obtains a soft pearly light, very suitable for the display of 
insect preparations, and wbh th leas' ; ' !• fa! igue to the eyes. 

Mr. W. MacDonnell, for Mr. H. J. Brown, exhibited and pre- 
sented to the Society's cabii.et a series of slides of spicules of 
jS'i/,/aj,/.i. of small Taiiicata, and of Gorgonia. 

Mr. Martin showed Lord O-borne s dial 1 i < xhibitor, the object 
operated upon being Gom/Jam' nm co/is/richr, in situ on alga. 

Mr. MacDoxnell exhibited some new and rare aulacodiscoidal 
diatoms from Peru and California, and Mr. Gilliat G&maeo^pkmm 

Mr. Pedley exhibited a rich gathering of Desmidiacece, from 
Bondi ; and Dr. Morris Moller's new series diatom typen platte. 

MONDAY, 12 AUGUST, 1S78. 
The Rev. George Martin in the Chair. 

and confirmed, 
n of the Sydney 
Water-main." " " * 

Mr. Hirst exhibited some very thin glass suitable for the covering 

of micro-objects. This glass is'simply blown from ordinary glass 

;Mr;ibly thinner that the thinnest covering glass, 

•iiat it is easier torn than broken, and may be 

Dr. Tccker exhibited a human betas six weeks old, and the 

Mr. F. B. Kyngdov exhibited a collection of insect preparations ; 
and Mr. H. Paterson showed the partial crystallization of chalk 
subjected to a pressure of about 951bs. to the square inch for three 
and a half hours, at a temperature of 350° Fahrenheit, 

Mr. Martin exhibited Sertularian zoophites, and crystals of 
santonine, and Mr. Pedley, polyzoa from Port Jackson. 

MOXDAY, !) SEPTEMBER, 1S7S. 



TIl.-Skcuet 
some binocula 
imported by tl 



A'enlum's biuoeuhir arran-ement. 

There was little or no forma! business to transact, but some 
nteresting exhibits were made by the members present, amongst 
vhich may be mentioned a pocket microscope, adapted for medical 



purposes, e,:. .; , ; . This littL 

milky : is f 
^tand, ;i -In , < ;,.,. nu \, lL iS ;Ut( j two objectives, 



Mr. G. D. Hirst exhibited a curious fungoid growth which had 
lately appeared upon a slip of pine wood that had been immersed 
for the last two years in a tightly stoppered vial of distilled water, 
and Mr. Pedley exhibited some slides of parasites and local polyzoa. 

MONDAY, 16 OCTOBER, 1S78. 
The Rev. George Martin in the Chair. 
The minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. 
Mr. W. MacDonnell exhibited a large and valuable series of 
micro-photographs of recent and fossil diatoms, executed by Dr. 
Gustav Fritseh, from specimens specially prepared by Herr Otto 
Mfiller. By means of an improve,! micro-photographic method, 
-Dr. Fritseh has succeeded in producing a series of plates showing 
an amplification hitherto unattainable, owing to the great loss of 
h i> prevented the necessary enlargement. 
Mr. MacDoxnixl mul a paper describing the plates, and ex- 
plained the bearing of micro-photography upon the question of 
the nature of the markings on the silicious skeletons of the 



Mr. H. Sh. 

Mr. Hewett s 

Mr. F. B. E 

cabinet for mi 


RP exhibited a bea 
ides of parasites, 


utifnllvM 
ml Mr. 1 
for the us 


The minute 

The Secret. 

to the Society' 

inga stained\s 

Of eight specie 

gizzard of a la 

Mr. G. D. I 

parative trial 


MONDAY, 11 JS 
The Bev. G. Ma 


oV EM 11 L 


TiSF' 




MacDon'vku' 
some difficult d 


at urn' te^ts "' 





Br. BfORBJ fa 6m§ rf 

mtar. BoteKV :Jfa De Lissa a col 

pollens; and Mr. I . d \ ^mns of Foram 
Guinea, Orbitolites, Alcedina, kc. 



Notes on the Incrustation of the Sydney Water-main. 
By Dr. Morris. 

[Read before the Microscopical Section, 12 August, 1S7S.] 
About six weeks ago, one of the water-mains which supply this 
city with water burst, and having seen a notice in the papers that 
the inside of the pipe was encrusted an inch thick with a soft sub- 
stance, I at once obtained a samp].-, but iu.stt.ad of being soft, I 
found that it consist. -d of layer, of oxide of iron, with other ingre- 
dients. This deposit I now submit for your inspection. On boil- 
ing a portion of this deposit in in rial h acid md afterwards in 
nitric acid, washing, and colic-cling the sediment, a microscopical 
examination of it pruv. I that it nt im i sub uu e not accounted 
for in the following analysis, wl i ich was forwarded to the Mayor 
■:'-■; - ' Mr. Charles Wait, and published in the Sydney 
Uorning herald of July 17th :— 



Analysis of substance forming a 

am water mains. — " Substance i 



• water supply. 



the blow-pipe test, the fumes of sulphur 


oon became ; 


to his olfactory nerves. Since then he ha 


s made a second analysis, 




of pure sulphur. This 




t the rate of H per 


cent., or 1£ lb. to every OS^ of deposit ii 




dissolved out by bisulphuret of carbon, w 


ioli di iws that it is not 


chemically combined with the iron depc 




naturally arises, where does this sulphur 






.id he thought it niusr 






kindred companions ,.f "sulphur found in 
used f( )r smelting purposes ' Probably ai 


the pyrites of the coal 


analysis of the iron pipe 



a hid'i contains in 100,000 parts 
oi-ht of sulphur in the condi- 
1 or of a soluble sulphuret. 



SECTION F— GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

[No meetings of this Section were held during 1878.] 



SECTION G.— LITERATURE AND FINE ARTS, 
INCLUDING ARCHITECTURE. 

This Section, which, from various causes, lapsed during the year 
1877, was, through the exertions of a few gentlemen interested in 
the promotion and cultivation of the fine arts in this Colony, re- 
organized during the current session ; and at a special meeting 
held 26 July, 1878, the following office-bearers were appointed : — 
Chairman :— Mr. E. L. Montefiore. Hon. Secretary : Mr. Percy 
E. Williams. Committee : Messrs. E. Du Faur, Ludovico W. 
Hart, G. A. Morell, C.E., and Professor Gurney, M.A. 

It was decided that the future meetings of the Section should 



The Chairman (Mr. E. L. M<» n.i i.m • , , xr.re scd his opinion 
that the Section would become one of the most popular with the 
members of the Royal Society, embracing as it did so wide a 
range of subjects, and trusted that the Colony at large would 
eventually profit by the united labours of the members of the 
Section. 



nly for our own benefit, but for the welfare of 
i race. The paper concluded by expressing a 



tical knowledge of photography. 

A lengthy discussion ensued' as to the place pho 
amongM the arts. 

A number of valuable photographs and autotypes were 
hibited; and a beautiful work on wedgewood, illustrate< 
photography, was laid on the table by Mr. E. L. Montefiore. 



FRIDAY, 27 SEPTEMBER, l>: ■. 
Mr. E. L. Montefiore in the Chair. 
Owing to the inclemency of the weather, only a f 



uni.-li was s.M-oiul.'il l,v Mr. I.. \V. Hart. 

The Chairman exhibited some rare and cui 
sun pictures by Fox Talbot. 

FRIDAY, 25 OCTOBER, 1S7S 

Mr. E. L. Montefiore in the Ch 

Mr. Ludovico W. Hart read a paper on " 

Processes," before a very large meeting, descrii 
of Woodburytype, photo-zincography, jihoto-lii 
typography, photo-chromography, heliography, 
rendered his lecture greatlv interesting by exhibi 
number of pictorial spe< * 
At the close of the rt 
on the utility of the many processes and their inventc 



FRTDA Y, 20 NOVEMBER, 1S7S. 
Mr. E. L. Montefiore in the Chair. 
The last meeting of the session. A good meetin 
a>M'mhled to hear a very interesting and anuisi 
" Music," read by Mons. Jules Meilhan, who very 
the claims of music as a fine art, and dwelt at some 
desirability of .-lasses bring established for impartii 
knowledge to the rising generation. Until this ' 
could not expert t » bear high .'lass music well rend 
Meilhan interspersed his lecture with 
Castrating the woes of composers and art critics 
with stars and theatrical managers. 



A- i' .' .' • | -.--ion arose on the 

subject of the position of music in the Colony, many of the 
members echoing the desire of the lecturer, that a training school 
should !." established. 

At the close of the meeting, the CHAIRMAN thanked the 
members for their attendance during the session, evidencing the 
interest they took in the subjects appertaining to the Section. 
He trusted that during next session some of the members -would 
be prepared to read papers upon literary as well as upon art 
subjects, to which the papers of the session just ended had been 
confined. 



An Apology for the Introduction of the Study of 

Photography in our Schools of Art and Science. 

By Mb. L. Hart. 

[Read before the Literature and Fine Art Section, 23 August, 187SA 
AMONG the many .splendid and important discoveries that have 
characterized the pivsmt crmurv. tW have more claims upon our 
sympathy than Photography. While many of these inventions 
have served only a special purpose, or benefited but certain com- 

placed its services at the disposal of all branches of human know- 



album, each particular pa-trait calling up a fresh history, we may 
exclaim with joy, "Oh, memory, fond memory, when all things 
fade we fly to thee !" The preservation and veneration of our 
photographic albums is one of the best means of keeping up a 
wholesome state of mind in young people living away from their 
friends. It has indirectly a moral action, for the presence of good 
is generally productive of good, and we could not or ought not to 
have the portraits of persons constantly before us, of whose virtues 
we are assured, v ■ n^ciously possessed in part 

of those virtues ; thus portraits are com i a 
powerful, though it 

One of the first requirements in many leading branches 

long and requires certain aptitudes. All students have not 
the means of purcha-ing that -Teat desideratum "a voyage 
through the more classical or artistic countries."' Tis true that 
sometimes a student gains a prize of money, enabling him to make 
the tour of Italy or Greece, lair manv have run the race, and only 
one perhaps has gained the prize. Here then comes photography 
to the aid of unsuccessful competitors. They cannot go to those 
places, but those places by pliotograpliv arc brought to them in all 

the principles of < -,, nn n j irn -f of the education 



to Fox Talbot, Tessie de 
Woodbury, Albert, Photogra 
long list of photo-mechanicE 



photography perfect stability ; and so Ion- as the paper r 
is prim- '<! will stand the w. arand tear of time, its photo- 
pression will cling to it as ivy around an old tower. Ai 
cost are these unalterable and faithful reproductions 
tained ? From a few pence to a few shillings, for bj 
the peculiar nature of these processes, a large numb 
pressions may be turned out at a very moderate cost 
there be students so poor as not to be able to poss( 
they might have recourse to the public ones. I migfc 
here that it would be well for the Government to pre; 
of collections of interest to the different museums, U 



of knowledge respecting them. In cases of deformity and 
fleshy protuberances, I have heard medical men state, that 

indifferent photographs wore far preferable To highly finisher! 
sketches. Here again I would remark that photography oilers its 
assistance for the general good, and in particular for the suffering 
part of humanity. How does physiological research accept photo- 
graphy .' Dr. Stein has succeeded in producing photographic re- 
in speaking ni t'hh,' v.un,1.'r.'"t'i.e /'/■■',,!', ,-U/e .V,'U says :- " A- 
the tones vary, so the waxes of the line occupy more ,.,-'les, spa,,-. 

tions are rapid, are represented by many steep waves ; low or basil 
tones, where the vibrations do not follow each other so rapidly, 
produce but a few waves in a line." 

Another practical use of the camera is thus described by Mr. 
Baden Pritchard. One instance taken from the war of lS.ls h 
especially interesting. The Austriansheld Venice at the time, ami 
to protect the harbour, torpedoes were laid down, which were tired 
by means of electricity. A camera was built overlooking' l he 






Berkowsky to the 



collodion process f„r thr 
V?'*-nt time all the Eurc 
tion with astronomy. T 
nomical photography has i 



hind of photography. 

purpose i»l.T;iin;]]^ tii' 
e purpose of nn-asiire- 
iv of tlifse l)odies with 



1852 Monsieur Christolphe proposed to the French Govern- 
ment that all prisoners should he photographed prior to 
their discharge, and notes of their cases and biography attached to 
them, hut nothing important was done until after the reorganiza- 
tion of the country in 1*71, when Monsieur Loml.ard succeeded 
in obtaining permission of the authorities to establish a photo- 
graphic department in the prisons. Some idea of its usefulness 
may he formed when it is staled that it already occupies nine 
operators in Pari.-; alone, where there are several stations, one 
being used exclusively by the Morgue Depot, where are laid out 
all persons f. ,ui , ■ killed, and whose residence 

is not known. All bodies brought in are immediately photo- 
graphed, and, when buried, the photographs are put in the 

register. Thus, persm, kin- lost relatives or friends may 

daily be seen consulting this shoeki tg but useful record. Views 
are taken where crimes have been committed. Even caves or 



•rudence. The photographic 

i-.-, <>i untried persons Irving 
nes of great service to the 
igain shows her great utility. 






large "stools," know 


m by geologists as sigillaria:. This is the 


fossil form of the fcrtu 


ik or si fin of at 


ree which grew during the 


age in which the coal 




ad its genus con- 


tributed more than i 


any other to the 




differed much from t 






with in these days. 


Dr. Hooker su 


-go-tfd that it probably 


belonged to the tree 




:r.'}>;c;il and semi-tropical 


countries. It being 




i-ia-o, all desired to have a 




Mr. G, Einlrey ( 


master of the Gloucester 


School of Science) ac( 




-v.- friends, visited the pit 


for the purpose of mal 


dug some photogr: 


iphs of it. The dry plate 


process was employed, 




is lit by the use of niagne- 








valuable than mere ha 


nd drawings. 




It would be foreign 


to the nature of 


this paper were I to enter 


into a long dissertatio: 






not. Monsieur Gasto 






to establish a parallel 






differ essentially in tl 


leir processes ; at ' 


r'hi^un.' time.V;n>i>ears 



. - • .| ,,, •■ • of their idol, 

;,-: -.vil! Tio loiter !••' valued by its 
|< I i m u but b; its truth and* the 

s, | isti- tl) " tiny ti lb « and "1 ey 

| sndent of and different 



from the subject imitate!. Whereas in photography the materials 
are not plastic, being unyielding scientific facts, which in their 
workings are not subject to plastic emotional feelings, and hence 
the imitation is dependent on, and cannot differ from, the subject 
imitated." This is true; only in part, and 1 claim for photography 
such emotional feeling as guides it in the difficult task of imitating, 
and the plastic power according to the nature of the materials 

this power of altering nature at will, to serve our likes and dis- 
likes, worthy of the appellation of fine art 1 Cultivated minds 
differ as 
to the r 



■'m','': fai 



; said that the materials used in photography were not 
rhich I presume is meant that they are not under the 

1 when used by those who know their properties and 

in painting so "in photography, two things are required, 
nd the necessary amount of brains to use them to 

These are represented l>v can wis, paint-;, and brushes, 
' ' i the one part, and by a knowledge 



of a 

ies of nature. In the matter of 



;;;;;^™!i ;l 1 ;;; n " T ;;[^ 


,.»v ]. 


;;;•;:; 


ed with, carefully put away for future use 
Is of, and follow up such men as Vernon 
di, Wilson, England, and others j see them u 
hing after the beauties of nature, watching 


But to 

Heath. 


ke til- 

r.niun. 



changes of light, seeing their subjects under all phases, looking for 
a happy spot where the combination of a picture may be in har- 
mony with the rules of art, and where nature is seen in her most 
beautiful aspect— in short, the brain working hard from morning 
till night. Not only have they to use equal judgment with the 
painter in his selection of light and position, but the practical part 
of their work is more difficult, and requires more consideration and 
patience. They have also many things to think of in assisting 
chemicals or making them phytic in their hands. They may par- 
tially expose one part and not another : t ley may develop one 
part more fully than another ; one subject may require a short- 
focussed lens, another a long one — one require a collodion with 
much more bromide than another. Again, in the after-printing of 
their subjects they have large scope for judgment and taste. In 
short, the proper working of photography requ in s the same amount 
ol intellectual faculty as is required for painting or for sculpture, 
and their tools are "in their vv ay equally as pliable. The loss of 
colour in the photograph is represented in painting by loss of 
valuable and truthful detail. When photography has the power 
of representing by natural m< aus subjects in their natural colours 
it will be proclaimed the first of the tine arts. Photographers, as 
a rule, have neglected art-education: but that has nought to do 
with the fact of jjhotography bring a tine art. All men who sit 
easel and handle their materials; are n-t artists, any more 









nlargements by pho 



Paris, Vienna. Rome. &c, merely : 

lack emotional plastic feel in-'.* Those grand pictures of ancient 
Rome, or the quieter scenes of rural life— do they call forth no 
sentiment ? These are all imitations, but the grandest that art 
ever saw— imitatu na thai it iagrfren to photography alone to pro- 
duce, for their perfection and truth defy all other processes. Here 
then i. s another reason why hi our Schools of 



Art, 



yet a young art, and seeing ^ 



already done, what may we not 'expect from it in thefutt 



Wo will now come to one more application of photography, 
which, although coming last, is not of least importance. 
I refer to its applicability to educational purposes. It is 
well-known the great difference that exists between reading of 
any subject and seeing illustrations of it. The latter must of 
necessity fix itself more lastingly on the brain. X 
are acknowledge! I be, in certain cases where truthfulness is 
required, better illustrations than any engraving process can be 



278 REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 

for educational purposes ; therefore large ones become very valu- 
able. What then ought to be the value set upon the method that 
allows us to procun >.-,! j h > i^v.q hs ■ [>o i a screen varying from 
6 to 30 feet in diameter? I speak now of the adaptation of 
photography to the sciopticon and oxy-hydrogen apparatus. Here 
is a special manner of teaching, at once the most perfect and the 
most interesting, allowing any number to see the illustration at 
the same time, the number depending solely upon the size of the 
hall used, which illustration bears truth in every line. There is 
really no limit to this mode of instruction — thousands upon thou- 
sands of subjects are in the market already, embracing all 
branches of knowledge. Science, art, travels, history — in fact, 
every subject may be treated in a manner which is calculated to 
produce most wonderful results. It was introduced into France 
with great success, and is still used in connection with the 
lectures in the military and other large schools. It can well 
be understood the great charm these monster photographs 
would produce on old and young alike. And how full of 
interest — look at those striking views of that great Indian 
empire. Alas! how very few of our countrymen know any- 
thing of its grandeur I Then there is much to be learned about 
those wonderful people the Chinese, the Japanese, the wilds of 
America, Africa — and, indeed, what is there not that we do not 
all want to know something about? But our occupation may 
forbid our roving, or pecuniary matters stand in our way, or 
again, ill health may prevent many from travelling. In all these 
cases photography comes again to our aid. Then, why let our 
rising generation so long remain ignorant of these places— why 
not illustrate our geographical lectures by these grand means by 
which the manners and customs of various nations can be so 
vividly described 1 I feel that I could dwell longer upon this 
subject than the nature of this paper would allow, for the know- 
ledge of our fellow-creatures is such a good, interesting, and 
important one, and the amount of ignorance, or the want of 
knowledge of other nations, even among Europeans, is still so 
great, and the bigoted ideas of past years so firmly fixed to us, 
that it will require a large amount of patience and careful teach- 
ing ere one-half of the civilized world understands, willingly or 
not, the virtues and abilities of their neighbours. The gradual 
extension of this mode of teaching, for public assemblies, schools, 
&c, is one that will serve to enlarge our minds and refine our 
ideas, that we may be able not only to see and appreciate the 
wonders of nature all around us, but that we may, as nations, 
become more familiar with the various countries of the world, 
and be able and willing to render justice to the different peoples 
for their various virtues and abilities ; and knowing these, we can 
we ourselves are deficient in, and so increase in 



aiiof , 



REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 279 

knowledge to the general welfare of the human race. Thomas 
Pearsall, F.C.S., in an article in the "British Journal of 
Photography," on photography, philosophy, and civilization, .says : 
— " To the literary world the power of light has become so obedi- 
ent that the very choicest stores of learning can be copied with a 
marvellous service, the choicest, priceless hooks, and manuscripts, 
can be copied with such exactness that the strains and ravages of 
time become matters of pictorial interest and truth — they can be 
copied, condensed, or enlarged, and even transferred from one 
material to another. In the current literature of the day, 
especially devoted to arts, science and manufactures, authors, 
artists, engravers, and publishers have a rare aid to pictorial 
illustrations. Take the book- illustrations by wood -engraving. 
The wood-engraver, in a sort of Chinese fashion, would and could 
only follow the lines traced for him by a special artist on the 
wood block. This artist was hampered by having perhaps a crude 
sketch on the one hand, to be followed out by such lines as the 
engraver could cut. Now, the wood block may have a photograph 
impressed upon it, and thus, having truth of faithful outlines, due 
proportion, and correct light and >\i; t yl\ hot!i artists and engravers 
can shape their lines to suit the texture, and their own art 
sympathies of expression. .Metal after metal has been employed 
until a solid block of metal enables the picture of a once delicate 
film of matter acted upon by light to be multiplied and worked 
withalltheappliancesof mechanical power." Heconeludeshisarticle 
by saying :— "The caverns of the deep will soon be explored, and 
light will shine in the valleys of deep waters, will point to the 
dangerous rocks to shun or how to follow a safe track, if mists, 
darkness, or fog, obscure the mariner's sky. The magnesium and 
electric lights will shine out if the sun at Stratford-le-Bow does not 
shine through fog and murky air ; and as in the evening sky we 
seem to find islands in a golden sky, so our thoughts have a grate- 
ful feeling for the obvious union of photography, philosophy, and 
civilization, and we rejoice in such reveries in " gloaming time." 
I might go on for almost volumes on the great advantages of this 
particular mode of educating the mass, but I must conclude with a 
few remarks bv John Beattie, Esq. :— "There are feu -."says J it ,-,f 
any, branches of science not indebted to photography, but especially 
those immediately connected with man. It has rendered anthro- 
pology comparatively easy. Ethnology is the science of character— 
the essence of all social science. Now photography is every day 
forcing us to see how social character is so directly connected with 
form. No sketch or engraving can please us— it must be a photo- 
graph j then the social "influence of photography is seen to be 
great in the multiplication of works of art. I trust we are 
coming toatime when all things will 1 ,. valued according to their 
true educational worth, in fact In proportion to their sociological 



influence and power to reveal man to man, and man to himself, 
and above all to cultivate the sentiment of beauty in the popular 
mind. Photography is made to bring under popular view 
all that has been rare and almost unattainable, the forms and 
pictures of suns and planets, the portraits and forms of life whose 
whole existence is spent in the eternal darkness of deep ocean. 
Surely then the educational influence of photography is immense, 
and must take its value from so great a social power. The use of 
photography to social srienre rmild never lie supplied by another 
art — nothing else could so hold up th • mirror to nature/' From 
the foregoing we must m k< +1 ■ b> ov :i - . mi ■ lusions : — That the 
study of the good an<I beautiful i, necessary, and of benefit to the 
human race. Photography I have shown "to be one of the best 
means of vulgarizing these studies. It follows as a matter of 
course that photography should therefore become a serious study 
amongst us, and no place better for it than in our schools of art 
and science, where a knowledge of the mode of working this 
mighty power might V made easy to all students. A course of six 
months' instruction in any one- branch of photography would be 
sufficient to make one acquaint* I with it- principles, and enable 
the student to work alone, where, by the aid of any of the well- 
written works on the subject, and the many practical journals 
devoted to its literature, he would be able to continue prosecuting 
his studies without the constant presence of the professor. The 
cost would be but small compared with the results, as one 
professor could visit many schools. What a great advantage to 
the Government of a country having its photographers spread all 
over its surface. What a wonderful collection of valuable in- 
formation could be thus obtained. Nor must the professor be 
simply a teacher or lecturer of his art — he must be a lover of it, 



i I ly become m 
Nature's mi I 



and Belgium, on photography, in connect i-m with the schools of 
art and science, and by these means a good training -diool for our 
young professionals will b- Cartel, who will thua have an oppor- 
tumty of getting a BOttmd ■■■' ■' photography 

— when, by successive examinations, a wholesome desire to excel 
may be created, and finally crowned by some recognized degree or 
mark, that will have raised the careful student to the competent 
and experienced operator. 



On Music. 

By M. Jules Meilhak. 

[Read before the Literature and Fhv Art Section, 2D November, 1S7S.] 

When asked a few days ago by our honorable Chairman to write 

an article or essay <-n Slusu; to be road before this learned Society, 



I nations, is the only kind, consisting of a 



tunes. A single voice or a .vor rough, may 

be sufficient to produce such, and the infant, be it man or nation, 
is capable of enjoying such music. But as man or nation develops, 
something more is attempted, and the fine art gradually grows up 
from the infant seed ; concerted music of every description, with 
its fanciful melodies and elaborate harmonies, leaves behind the 
mere dance tunes, and eventually asserts the glory of art, just as 
from the mere rough-hewn stone some great sculptor will produce 
to our wondering, reverent eyes the very image of the gods. In 
its progress, however, mimic recedes from the crowd, for the com- 
poser is no more the only producer of his works. Between him 
and his public is an immense distance, interspersed with obstacles 
of all sorts, unknown to other artists. A painter, for instance, 
composes a picture, and with the last touch of the brush his work 



on on it. ' Tin 


work of the sculpto 




ce finished 


ni' privilege. 


Architecture, it is tru 


, presents to its 


difficulties, an 


d in this, as in some o 


her 








V h> 


the aivhi- 




i his plan, showing 




les of the 


fully measured 














.tic value ; 




le effect will be whe 


. thl 






once all the difficultn 


of b 


lildersanu 


nnountecl, wli 


it a rich recompense tc 


see 


grow into 


ity of his cone 


ption. Then any oik 




y one may 



fortune,. 



after happiness, its hope and despair, its tenderness, its love and 
hatred, its generosity and meaune-s, and so down to the everyday- 
moods and affections of indolence and vivacity, sullenness and 
good humour, &c. ; and thus it is that he alternately drags and 
beguiles us through all the infinite variety of his fancy. He must 
be a Proteus ready to assume all shapes — man, beast, fire, 
Stream — always deceiving those who do not know how to tame 
and to force from him his precious secrets. I admit, of course, 
that such an organization — one, I mean, so rich in natural gifts 
as well as in prod - — is not to be found in 

all musicians; some, indeed, having been remarkable for a few 
only of the above requisites, have as a natural consequence been 
consigned to an inferior position in the judgment of posterity. 
Let us, however, take a good composer of the day — say the cele- 
brated author of "Faust" and of "Borneo and Juliet." He 
commences an opera. One, two, perhaps three years of labour 
are before him. During all that time he lives in the world, 
spending an afternoon here, an evening there— garden parties, 
dinners, publishers' soirees — ho must attend all the social 

at these places, to insane opera-bouffe selections, to empty crashing 
military band music. He must answer silly journalist questions, 



submit well or badly to the 


real and the woul 


smiles and praises lavished o 


n him ; perhaps eve 


by some of tl 




firms who order mi 




himself hound 


down to compose 


things' which. 


good or bad, ca] 


i add but little to hi 


all this time t 






head and in 


his heart, his 


whole subject \* 


the duchess v 




a nde, be is perba] 


passion of Ih 


mieos heart; or 


keeping ever bofi 


( 


MoL^mcs^are: 


"umlin^in hls'ear, 


IirWoth.'seh 






fugitive of nil 








duced hv differs 






-ey to our souls 


the expression of 


fancies, in tin 


) proportion of 


his genius and of 




ptive pew. v and of our sympai hv 




vever, let us say 








with fanciful 


dots, lines, zig- 


•zags, serpentdookin 


rection, and h 


ieroglyphics of all sorts, expressing a 


of talent or genius. As it s 
knows it ? \^k^„ A 4W 


tands now it is a 



who cares to spell slowly and painfully through such a manu- 
script with its numerous abbreviations, so deceptive that often the 
eye mistakes one clef for another, thus altering sufficiently the 
sound to put you all out and oblige you to read again the twenty 
or thirty lines which |><Tr'orn<< d sii:ni!t'ineoiisly are to produce the 
effect of that portion of the work. No one cares for a task so 
hard, and no one undertakes it. It is for this reason that judges 
of musical competition require from the candidates a pianoforte 
arrangement and reduction of the general scores, and it is for this 
same reason thai young eonmo.s: rs iiud it so difficult to present 
themselves fairly before the world : for in many compositions the 
pianoforte score is powerless to give any sufficient or correct idea 
of the whole work. < >f course in the case of an already celebrated 

then a matter of t-ours" that the opera is to he performed, and it 

imi.iediai!-h : "prin'H Vic- '\tunl .!■:'•■ J'.'-'for the a^anee 'of the 



I may mention as a ea-e in point two of tl e finest scenes of the 
French opera— Rachel, in " La Juive," and the duet closing the 
fourth act of "The Huguenots," which we owe to the suggestions 
of great tenors. But against these exceptional cases are number- 
less deplorable passages introduced to please singers in certain 



REPORTS FROM THE 


; SECTIONS. 


285 


other works, mostly French and Italh 

-V certain Madame llisson, then singi 


m. Happy com; 


posers when 

r deaths, as 
'. remember. 



ner iieau to try her hand at improving her part in " Der Freis- 
chutz," and so violently did she resent the very moderate and 

I A < -, next n i ling to that news- 
paper office ; and when in obedience to her request the writer of 
the article in question politely presented himself at the door of her 
carriage, she lent forward, and, with all her strength administer- 
ing a couple of slaps to the outstretched face of the bewildered vic- 
tim, she drove quickly awav. Of course, this circumstance was calmly 
recounted in full in next da/a Figaro, w&h the natural remark 
that such conduct, especially from the fair sex, on whom it could 
not be returned in kind, left but one course open to the critic, 
which would be to pass them by with merely the observation that, 
as they not only professed to have arrived at perfection and to 
need no improvement, but also were readv to assert by the valour 
"f their fair hands their bein- better interpreters than the com- 
posers themselves of great works like "Der Freischutz," they 

To return to our composer's miseries. The stars restored to 
good humour, he has next to run the gauntlet of the manager— 
the interpreter of public taste; and if his energy or diplomacy 
has saved his work from some of the vandalism of the stars, it is to be 
feared it will not hold out against the storming of the director. 
Wagner himself, the despotic Wagner, had to give way when his 
"Tannluiuser*' was rehearsed in Paris. In his own account of 
that unfortunate affair, he confesses he was obliged to modify his 
work in order to make room for a ballet, without which, he says, 
no opera there can succeed. It is true that the great tone-poet 
has long done with this mild spirit of condescension. Now, he 
not only imposes his own concept inns without suffering the very 
slightest modification, or the hint of such a possibility, but he for- 
bids the audience to give anv mark, even of approval, before the 
close of the act. It is related also ..£ him that when, at the dose 
<>t the Bayreuth festival, all thechief p.-rform.-rs were clamorously 
called upon to reappear before the curtain to receive the applause 
they so well merited, Wagner** overv 

alarm, he tyrannically forbad- their obeying, and he made his 
appearance all alone before the public. 

Well, it is not every composer, even though popular, who can 
afford thus to stand on his <%//////. and composers therefore in 
general know well what it is to pass under the caudine forks of 
directorial tyranny ; moreover, during the rehearsals there are 



286 REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 

plenty of well-meamiu u \ , 1 h h uard their various 
— " Would it have a fine effect if the trombones had i 
or if the oboe could be added to the flute there V and 
these prick-points, without counting the necessary < 
the faults of copy, make his life a real martyrdom. 

,\; : I • • "(1 for the full and final practice arrives. 

Everybody is at his post, A. sort of solemnity prevails on these 
occasions. Members of the Press crowd in with their note-books ; 
provincial managers are ther - to see if the new work is one likely 
to suit the tastes of their special public. The composer, sitting 
near the conduct m\ ' , . d to give the temps, when, 

perhaps, as the last drop overflowing the cup, comes the indisposi- 
tion of the prima donna, or some equally happy accident, involving 
postponement. Why the general disappointment and annoyance 
should be visited on the composer, who can tell ? But so it mostly 
is; and, alas! he who is the most bitterly annoyed and disap- 
pointed of them all has no one on whom he has the right to fall 

ill not weary you with further details. The first representa- 



. will not weary you with further d--r:u'ls. 



up to the critics, and In- must harden himself to every possible 

organ-grinder; he is "ballooned" (excuse the word) up to the 
seventh heaven, or "diamond-drilled" (pardon again) to the 
bottom of hell. Anyway he one.' more breath's freely — his work 
is produced — it is known he can do no more. He waits the 
verdict of time, and may p -rhaps never know it. 

To return now to my assertion that the musician, or rather 
composer, has t o more ma.ieri.-d difficulties 

than have other ar; rts,.j their works, — do not 

imagine I have . • >• lengthy sketch 

of our friend the composer. Alas, no ! 'For the success of a 
work, good or bad, before the public, depend ; in so large a measure 
on the degree of perfection of the performance. The more beau- 
tiful the work the more perfect should be the performance, in 
order to show forth its < , is why composi- 

tions that in London, Paris, Vienna, and Leipzic excite unbounded 
enthusiasm, create hut little effect sometimes in other towns. In- 
stance the works of Beethoven. If any man ever conquered a 
sublime position in the estimation of all those who love and under- 
stand music, it is P. .■ he , n, v lm-e dlu^'ti'-u , name has become 
almost an object of worship. All his works have been published 
by hundreds of music-sellers, yet all have been enriched by such 
publications. There is not a C t ;. ;-,„•., t n • -. ho does not possess 
a copy of his pianoforte sonatas. I know I myself possess four 



REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS 287 

editions of them, without reckoning duets, trios, quartettes, 
' symphonies, &c. There is not a musical Society whose programmes 
do not contain some of his orchestral compositions. Beethoven 
to music is what Shakespeare is to poetry. It is, then, precisely 
to this same grandeur and perfection in his conceptions that we 
should trace the painful fact that few can enjoy the performance 
of his works here — that many are found wondering that such 
"heavy, fatiguing " music should be termed highest class, and 
that a few, whilst suffering martyrdom, tremble to see the future 
of art in this country compromised for ever by such well-meant 
but imprudent and inadequate productions of such masterpieces. 
Can I ever forget the performance of his " Fifth Symphony," as 
given here some months ago. Oh, the profanation of that splendid 
work ! There was not a single bar without its mistake- time, 
tune, expression, movement, all went wrong— a veritable repre- 

that masterpiece of composition then for tin 1 lirst time left with 
weary, confused nerves, and an irritable com -jet i«>ii that there must 
be much humbug in the growing worship of the .great master's 

music. To build such cathedrals as Strain rg or Cologne with 

would be easier than' to ,,lay Pnvihmen with musicians who have 

between a,, hit- tin uid mil V hilst tin irclnteet nerds but 

good workmen to carrv out his -work, the musician needs artists 
Capable of comprehending the entire structure, so as each to be 

fore be surprised if ma-i- in tins ( V.l-.ny lias yet to take its proper 
it is as yet ranked only among the amusements which often fail 
Mon,\u,j lLurud at'.Mr. V7 indeyer's bill on copyright, and I 



Doubtless he has known this, b 


ut has forgotten 


A be wrong to throw the whole 
islator, since his obliviou.-nn -- is 1 




: dare say, largely 


fact that music itself in this youn 


g community has 



REPORTS PROM THE SECTIONS. 

, the musical critics of our papers do not show 
.vlcdu'c of their subject, or much care for their 
ritiques of each year, 
" day 

the attendance, 



Itoadov.-rth 


hundred, say 




is is about tl 


e substance 


f them all :— " 










'j,-o was appreciative. Mr. A 




Miss B. displayed such a Y 


iK-nt that sin 


elicited an e 


icore. Mrs. TVs 


■ the other, n< 


ver fails to be appreciated," a 


twenty lines 


according to 


the number of a 


Hi. O.K. OXC 


option to this 






VZuiJi 


er one of Mdllc 
an attempt if n 



e found principally ; 
paint kndsca'es fa 






d-,:.. 



! point no one will, I thin 



Ignored by the learned, forgotten by the Legislature, overlooked 
by the Press, more or less forsaken by the public, the noblest, 
' ■ - not even acknow- 

ledged as an art. Deeply, however, as I myself feel this miscom- 
prehension of tluv • of my studies, I 



might say of my life, I do not despair of its future in this country, 
because I can trace its present humiliation to very natural causes. 
and I therefore see no reason that time and patience should not 
put the matter right. In so young a community as tin's every one 
is at -work to make his fortune and to advance the Colony. To 
give a value to the waste lands, to make the city a centre of com- 
merce, so as to attract population and money, are less the means 
I itself ; squatting, bankir 

drely subordinate ; 
their way in so new a cc 

'■ — -s follow U 

ence the young Colony 



''■■ ■■■■'• 
1 a University isfounded ; b 
limited, the curriculum embr 



tor cuhiv; 
therefore. 



popular of 
piano, by : 



REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 

being engrossed with very different pursuits since their 
arrival in the Colony, have mostly forgotten the use of their 
instrument, and can find neither time i'^v private practise nor for 
rehearsals. All the same, say I, all honor to these valiant 
champions of art! Though working in a wrong direction, they 
thus direct the attention of a certain number of persons to the 
subject, and help consciously or unconsciously to the more serious 
ami well-directed movement which must come in the course of time. 





rtliel 


ss, for the prese 


it, weighed by their own intrinsic 


wort 






. ' i i! lt music in its best light, 


for, 


is before sa 


s music requires high-class execution, 


and 


ligh- 


lass execution a 


n be obtained only from 








! . masters of their instru- 








Btfcy every sign of time and expression 






\ their parts. N 


w, do we possess a sufficient number 


tie:-. 


el, :u 


tistshere? Assu 


edly not ! Of course I speak only of 
as and choruses, nor of t] 










[ belong, nor of 


•ertain ladies and gentlemen I know 








^itions to our musical Societies, though 


fat 






lid reasons they stand aloof. Under 


allt 






, it is not wonderful if, though often 


;t . 


3 


MS"; 


Veil, it is not worth the strain of 


take 


<'uv 


'' ' r ri .'■' ai-.-Vi'-lr m'!m'n';J r -i"d, 


*ha 


is w 


rse, anything tha 


!', ; .e;todly attU- i.'ed 1". p I* dL fdls 


****** 


beco 


nsiderakly depred 


ited by the process. 



it be spent in doctoring the body when the 
Poor performance is poor everywhere — we 
; and it would be a small consolation for 
t know what good music was in New South 
led, "but you could not have a finer hall!" 



REPORTS FROM THE SECTIONS. 291 

People might almost as well say, "But then Sydney harbour w so 
lovely !" No, the music-hall is not what most presses ! But there 
are some other persons who suggest having practices of orchestral 
and vocal music. This scheme, though in principle better than 
the other, is practically, in my opinion, as powerless to serve the 
purpose proposed. You succeed in procuring, say, the names of 
twenty or thirty amateurs on your list, At the first practice 
nve or six of these persons attend ; at the next meeting perhaps a 
few more, or a few less : and this is vour average luck through 
the season. Now. of tin-,, serious members— I say serious 
because they are in earnest and attend— few know enough to 
execute their parts even roughly. Dubious tune, fantastic time, 



merely of pastime and ;i r'.ir .-ar for music, as' 
Knowing little more than the rudiments of musi< 
perhaps been induced to join an orchestra just as 
have been sent to school, and thenceforward, prou< 



comprehend, 


-if the'. 


slender. The 








but l.'t there 












school for mu 


ie J \ < 


girls in prefer 
reap. Let us 




1'iiilii a s 


this idea ; hii 




youth to eat 


I;.- fruit i 



difficulties. I propose, then, the establishment of a school for 
music, in which boys ami girls shall he taught the solfege, vocal 

least at a merely nominal rate, say hah' a guinea for a course of 
thirty lessons, three times a week : children admitted to the school 
should be between 7 and 15 years of age- any older applicants 
would require a special examination before being admitted. Four 
perfectly competent teachers would be sufficient to commence this 
scheme; one for * solfege, one for vocalization, one for stringed 
instruments, and one for such instruments as the clarionet, flute, 
hautboy, bassoon, &c. — at any rate until time and success would 
permit of having a special and clever teacher for each branch, not ex- 
cepting harmony and composition. Perhaps only two teachers — one 
for solfege (boys and -nls) and one f«,r stringed instruments — might 



in Sydney an art 


s{ whose disinter* 


tedness in the cause of 




loubtless lead hhr 


to accept gladly the 


st ringed instruments for love of ai 


. The artist to whou 


has already oiler 


d his services, tho 




to the Academy 




nnot doubt but that 1 


be willing to modify, or even alti 




practices, if such 






either in connect 






And for the sol 


ege teacher I can 






the same terms. 










be desirable is 






ought we go on a 


s now -dozing, if 


mt slumbering 1 No! 








the right directio 
Art, about to as 


sic Th ^ a thein S e 


Academy of Arts, to h 



SECTION H.— MEDICAL SCIENCE. 

During the session IS 78 the Medical Section of the Royal Society 
held eight meetings. At the first meeting, on April 12, Mr. H. 
G. Wright was elected Chairman, Messrs. Cluxe and Roberts 
were appointed to the Committee, and Messrs. Joxes and 
MacLaurix were continued in their office of Secretaries. 

At the other meetings of the Section numerous papers wew 
read of a very in- . . «I mam \ athoh^ual sp< d- 

P. SYDNEY JONES, 
H. N. MACLATJRIN, 

Hon. Secretaries. 



SECTION I.— SANITARY SCIENCE. 

Report of the Social and Sanitary Science Section of the Royal 
Society for (he scion of 1878. 

Sydney, 10 December, 1878. 
To the President of the Royal Sx-ietv. 

Sir, 

I have the honor to submit the following report :— 

The first meeting of the session was held on the l-nh da\ ot 
April last, when Wv. Ami.io !;■■,•'!- was elected Chairman; 
Professor Smith Dr BELGRAVE,and Messrs. Wright and Bedford 
were elected members of I •' N 

was chosen Honorary Secretary. , , 

At subsequent meetings the subjects Vital Statistic, and the 
Form of Ceniliea:- «-i th- < V.w 'of Death were further con- 
sidered ; but owing t> the ab>en< ■ from Sydney of some of the 
members of the Section, and I - , rseafactaato 

be pursued for remedying the defects found to exist was not 
definitely agreed upon. « . 

It is hoped that during the next session these and other im- 
portant matters will be d. -ait with, and that the Section will be 
able to offer some valuable suggestions thereupon. 

IiMVe ' ALFRED ROBERTS. 



APPENDIX. 



ABSTRACT OF THE METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
TAKEN AT THE SYDNEY niJSERVATORY. 



';<>vk;:\mk\t <m>K!:v.\t<>i;y. sydxkv. 



Temperature Highest in ti . si, ,v 

Lowest in the Shade 

II idlest in the Sim 
Highest in Black Box 



Rain 


Number of Days ... 
Greatest Fall 
Total Fall 


... (hSSSin 

j 0-636 in 

•- \ 1-096 in 


(No dew.) 


;.!■.,•!:„]. 


Evaporation 
Ozone... 


Me^ 


!—..=. 


... 8-791 in 


-,-oofhc .re 


„ Jtas : 


Ujmi*) 


Electricity ... 
Cloudy Sky . 


s= 


ber of Days Lightning 4 

berTKear Days '.'.'. 3 
ber Observed ... 2 








no day has it exceeded 
Generally, the rainfall 
the highest being 8 93 i 


>een above the average, and tin 

has been light ; but along the cc 
Macquarie. 


■ temp-rat r.iv. alt 
-e the average for 


Ss 



C OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 
FEBRUARY, 1878.— Genera 



(Prev 




tion during the same mo 


ith for the preceding 


Temperature 


High 
Low* 


tin the Shade '.'. 

st in Black Box with 

Diurnal Range 
in the Shade 


911 onthe23r 
62-5 on the 27t 

ls-t; onthe23r 
140 -2 on the 25t 

20G-4 onthel2t 
50 -7 on the 5th 
10 
72 


(Being 1-3 g 


MtwtiHl 


that of the same month 




Humidity 


l.-'Jt 


est Amount 


100-0 on the 5th 


(Being 34 gi 


nte Uai 


that of the same month 


on an average of the p 


Rain ... 


gS 


MtftU .'.'.' 


^•SnchS 5 ^ 




Total 


Fall 




(Being 9-991 inch 


es greater 


han that of the same month on an average of t 


Evaporation 


Total Amount 


4-G91 inches. 


Ozone... 


Mean 


Amount 


7-0 


(Being 22 g, 


aai« thai 


that in the same month 


on an average of the p 


Electricity . 
Cloudy Sky 


Mmi 


Amount 


7-9 



i ._ln ut ti ( i v _ t ih 1 ,. I n L 



S ft. >r J ; - -*■•" - : ~'-~ Ai 

er level, but a flood i 



i the Darling 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 
GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 



MAKCH, 1878.— General Abstract. 
Barometer... Highest Reading 30 '160 inches on t 



Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Days Calm 
Prevailing Direction 



i the Shade .. 

; Shade 

Highest in Black Box witl 

Lowest on the (Irasri 

Mean Diurnal Kange 

^hacle 



57-6 on the 31st. 



103-1 on the 12th. 



Number of Days 
Greatest Fall 
Total Fall ... 



Evaporation 



Electricity .. 
Cloudy Sky- 



Number of IV; 

ir Days ... 



greater than the average of past 
?Jl rt ¥jP° lon >''%" 



has been unusually 
19 years. " ' 

Gilgoin. At Wentworth the Ri 



flood ; at Bathurst, I 






APRIL, 1878.— General Abstract. 

Highest Reading 30 -267 inches on the 9th at 1 

Faht. Lowest Reading 29 392 inches on the 28th at 

Mean Height 29 "921 inches. 



... < ri-eatest Pressure 32-01bs. on tl 

Mean Pressure (P41b. 

Number of Days Calm ... 1 

Prevailing Direction ... W. 

(Prevailing direction during the same month for the precedin 

L'atlire Highest in the Shade ... 79 '0 on the 1 

Lowest in the Shade ... 51 "9 on the 2 

Greatest Range 201 on the 1 

Highest in the Sun ... 1397 on the 1 

Hi.-;. - ■■ !•' .!.::- ■ ■. 

Glass Top ITS 2 on the 1 

Lowest on the Grass ... 45 -3 on the 2 

Mean Diurnal Range ... 13 "4 



average of past 1 



■ <>[',sKKV\Tni;Y. 



MAY, LS7S.— General Abstract. 



Greatest Pressure . . . 
Mean Pressure 
Number of Days Calm 
Prevailing Direction 



Temperature Highest in the SI 

Lowest in the Sh 
Greatest Range 
Highest in the Si 
Highest in Black 





Greatest Fall '.'.'. '.'.'. 
Total Fall 


0-562 inch. On 1 

( O-.-.40 inch. «.)f( 

(0-817 inch. 15 k 


(Being 4-552 inc 


hes less than that of the same month 


on an average of the pi 


Evaporation 


Total Amount 


2-355 inches. 


Ozone 


Mean Amount 


6 5 


(Being 1-0 inch 


greater than that in the same month 


on an average of the pr 


Electricity ... 
Cloudy Sky... 


M:::::;:::,,:r I : ehtnius 


3 



t month this year in wh: 



;ht throughout the Colony, except the Clarence River Distru 
n^ have fallen. At W.iitworth the Darling is down to sun 



.f..ii ii.,< i 



<:0\ KKXMKNT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 



JUNE, 1878.— General 
Highest Reading 30' 



Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 03 1 on the 1 

Lowest in the Shade ... 387 on the 1 

Un-it-t Hange 17'8 on the 1 

Highest in the Sun ... 123 on the 1 

Highest in Libick Hoxwitli 



Mean in the Shade.. 






or. ::::v atoiiy. s\ unkv. 



Barometer-. Highest Reading .. IK) "22] ik-Ik-s on the 30th at 9 a.m. 

At32 > Faht. Lowest Reading 29-343 inches on the 19th at 1 '25 p.m. 

Mean Height 29 "826 inches. 



Greatest Pressure 19 2 lbs. on the 27th. 

Mean Pressure 071b. 

Number of Days Calm ... 

Prevailing Direction ... W. 

Highest in the Shade ... 71 2 on the 26th. 



Greatest Range 
Highest ii " ~ 

Lowest on the Grass 



■k Box with 160-7 < 



10taI * ail ) 3-495 inches. 15 in. above ground. 

Evaporation Total Amount 2 1 1 1 inches. 



Electricity- 
Cloudy Sky 






1 OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 
AUGUST, 1878.— Gene 






Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 77 -9 on the 28th. 

•■•I.. 

Highest in the Sun ... 149*0 i a 

Highest in Black Box with 

Glass Top 160-7 on the -JSth. 

I. - ■ < 



•090 less, and the temperature 1-8 greater than tin- avera*' 

, : . - ... • . •,. • , . : ' ■■■: ' : " 



<.m KUNMKNT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 



SEPTEMBER, 1878.— General Abstract. 
Barometer... Highest Reading 30-173 inches i.n thr 



G reatest Pressure 1 7 4 lbs. on the 24th a 

Mean Pressure 



f Days Calm 





Range 




-J'.iv 


on the 2 1st.' 


li'-'Ji'.'-'t 

Hid:. ■ 




.tii 


1 CM 


onth 


12th. 




Top 




l si ■: 


onti 


21st. 


l,.\w'st 
M.-.-in 1 


u n rnai e Ra r n^e 




u-7 

(iOl2 


onth 


29th. 


r.l.a.t 


at of the game mo 


th 


nana 


erage o 


the prececli 


Least" 


Amount... 




UKK 


;:;;;; 


3r.i, r.th, 



862 inches. 15 in. abov. 



covkrnmknt ouskryatory, svdnky. 



Barometer ... Highest Reading 30-146 

At 32° Faht. Lowest Reading 28 '967 

Mean Height 29 "788 



Greatest Pressure . . . 
Mean Pressure 
Number of Days Calm 



Lowest in the Shade ... 49'7 on the 17th. 

Greatest Range 30 '3 on the 4th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 1390 on the 14th a 

Highest in Black Box with 

Glass Top 198-3 on the 29th. 

Lowest on the Grass ... 37 "7 on the 17th. 
Mean Diurnal Range ... 15 -4 



1-999 inch! 16 in. above ground. 



Evaporatio: 



Electricity . . . Number of Days Lightning 
Cloudy Sky ... Mean Amount 



: bvtt at Wentworth t 



GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNKY. 



NOVEMBER, 1878.— General Ab 



Barometer.. Highest Reading 30-167 ii 

At32'Faht. .Lowest Reading 29\279i 

•Mean Height 29761 ii 



Numb 

Prevai 

(Prevailing direcl 


er of Days Calm 
ling Direction. 


Temperature Highest in the Shade 
Lowest in the Shade 

Highest in th?Sun" 
Highest in lila.-K Uox 




' : ; v . ' '■ 


(Being 2- 


1 greater than 


that of the same m 


Humidity 


- SF 


**_*... 


(Being 1 


•eieBs^hatofthesamemont 


Rain ... 


- ^te 


rtFaU ay " "'.'. 




Total Fall ... 



Electricity . , . Number of Days Lightning 

Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount 

Number of Clear Days ... 
Meteors . . . Number Observed 



.• .:n',i jo;: -t *h> N't w Kmrl.-m.l I'i.-tri-t. 
Yii.; Murray and i';'l:i,._ liners in mil ti-« i at WYntv. ..,-th. the rairtall at 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 



DECEMBKR, 1878.— Gene 



Highest in the Shade ... 89d mi the 17th. 
Lowest ill the Shade ... 5t>-3 on thr 2ml. 

<ir.Mt.st Kan-v 26-3 on the 3rd. 

Highest in the Sun ... 152-4 on the 23rd. 

Highest in Black Box with 

Ulass Top 223-r. on the 23rd. 



Low. 

Mian Diurnal Rai 






16 rain 1 dew. 
1-131 inches on the 15th. 
I 2 T.79 inches. 1 15 feet above ground. 
I 4-094 inches. 15 in. above ground. 



Number of Days Lightning 
Number of Clear Days ... 



Barometer 0-078 below a 
nd the maximum in shade is only 89-1, as"eompared - 
^enerally the rain has been from 1 to 4 inches, and at Kurrajong : 

t falling here and 



l the Murray and Darling ; 



LIST OF PUBLK Ai luXs. 



IKAXSACTIOXS OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY <>|' 
SOUTH WALES, 1862-1865. 

On the Vertebrated Animals of the Lower Murray^ 



£ Gerard Krefft. 
Gerard Krefft. 
tin Gardim 



riVd 'in ','theO 



[ John Tebbul 

John Tebbul 

J, .in I . '• i .. 
•• I ' ' ■ 

> Rev.W.B.Clar! 



On the Cave Temples of India 
On Snake bites and their antidotes 
On the Wambeyan Caves 
On the Fibre Plants of New Soutl 

Wales gold 

On the Prospects of the Civil S 

Superannuation Act of 1864 
On the Distribution of Profits in ] 

On the Agricultural Statistics of 1 
On the Defences of Port Jackson 
On the Transmutation of Eocks in 
On the Oology of Australia ... 
The Theory of Encke's Comet 



::'m. 



>teorological So' 

he Manners and Customs of t 
i Lower Murray and Darling 






| Lieut. -Colonel 1 
J M. B. Pell. 
C. Rolleston. 



. R. Smalley. 

. R. Smalley. 

\ Gerard Krefft. 



PUBLICATIONS. 



1 Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S., &c, Vice- 
President. 
[.—On Non-Linear Coresolvents, by the Honorable Chief Justice 
Cockle, F.R.S., President of the Queensland Phil..* ,p hi, -\ 



i on a paper by ! 

. n t!if hones loan 



IV ..... .... . : ^f S cn„ jmrtle J,, Bcdford , M . R . c . s 

V.— On the Rates of Murfalit , and Expecta- ^ M. B. Pell, B.A., Pr 
tion of Life in New South Wales, as f fessor of Mathem 
compared with England and other I tics in the Universi 

VI.-Note on the Geology of the Mary River { ^ ^^ ^ 
VH.-On the Mutual Influence of Clock Pen- } Q. R. ' 8n wU*J, B-i 



II.— On the Improvements effected in Modern ( 

III.— On the Hospital Requirements of) i 
_ a Sydney J 



Opening Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S., Yiee-President. 

(G. K. Holden, Senior 

Article I.— On the operation of the Real Property Act j Examiner of Titles, 



ell. 
III. 




tion of SirW. Hamilton's 
he Inscription of Closed 

n the Geometry of three 


IV. 


he American Method of" 
r Sections. The supe- 



\ :■:■;■ 

land and India, and how to connect BE. 0. I V 
the Australian Colonics with the tele- v intemlent of Tele- 
graphic systems of Europe and | graphs for N.S.W. 

VI. — Notes on the Geology of the country ) ^ M Thompson, Sc. D. 

, VII.— On tin' Origin and Migrations of the } 

Evil. ■ ' " j ; 

, VIII.— Improved Solutions of Problems in j Martin Gardiner, C .E. 
IX.— On the Water Supplv of Svdney from) p , , i f 

George's River and OooVa Bint ... i VBmam aL ** ' 
, X.— On th.- Ke- It-. : th. CI i al Exami-") 

nation of Waters for the Sydney V Professor Smith, M.D. 

. Xl.-On the Refining oY Gold by means of] R R Mm p . as> 

Chlorine Gas 1 

, XIL-On a new Apparatus for Reducing ] A Leibiug Ph il. Doe. 

Chloride of Silver * ... ) 

, XIIL— Remarks on Tables for Calculating] H c Eusse n. P a 



enin- Ad-lre«. ! v t • R. v. W. K Clarke. M.A.. F.G.S., Vice-President. 
de I.-On^rost-offio.*™ . , ., ton> Auditor 



312 LIST or PUBLICATIONS. 

Article II.— Remarks on the Keport of the Water ) 

Commission, especially with reference j Andrew Gamm, LL. 

to the George's Eiver scheme ...) 

„ III— On the Botany Watershed E. Bell, M.I.C.E. 

„ IV.-Notes on the Aunf. r. , « M , , ; 1 , Thom80D 

Granite Veins oi New >outn \\ m- I 
„ V.— On the occurrence of the Diamond near > By Norman Taylor a 

Mudgee ) Prof. Thomson, Sc. 



Vol. V. 

Contents. 

Opening Address by Professor Smith, M.D., Yice-Presi 
ul r 1 Eta| KC>Eu 



Article I.— Eemarks 

II.— Magnetic Variations at Sydi 



III.— Eemarks out 



V.— On the Cons 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE RoVAI, Sm IKTVOF NEW SOUTH 
WALES, 1872. 

Vol. VI. 

Contents. 
Opening Address by the Eev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., Vice-President. 
Article L— On an Improved Method of Separatii 



Gold from Argentic Chloride, 




• Dr. Leibius. 






) 


II.— Ermarks on the Fallacy of a 






method of Assaying Antimon 




• Dr. Leibius. 


given by some "Manuals of Assaying 


) 


III.— Remarks on Tin Ore, and wh 




■ Dr. Leibius. 


appear like it 




IV.— On Australian Gems 




' George Milner Stephen 
I F.G.S. 


V. —Astronomical Notices 




H. C. Russell, B.A. 


VI.— On the Coloured Cluster Stars 




| H. C. Russell, B.A. 






VII.— On the Deniliquin Meteorite . . . 




'Archibald Liversidge, 


niL-Statistical Review of the Progress of 


> 


New South Wales in the 1 




- Chris. Rolleston, Esq. 



OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES, 1873. 
Vol. VII. 



. Clarke, M.A., Yice- 



IV" i ] [,', Trnn-it of Yin,* II. C. Ru~, 11, R.A. 

„ Y.— Note on the Bingera Diamond Distiict Arch.Liversulge,F.C.;3. 

„ YL— On our Coal and Coal Ports James Manning. 

„ VII.-Appendix to "On our Coal and Coal \ Jameg Manning . 

.. VIII. --On our Coal and Coal Forts James Manning. 

.. IX.— The Mammals of Australia and their} 

Classification. Parti. Ornithodeljo.ia ■ Gerard Kreilt. 

and Didelphia ) 

„ X.— On Geodesic Investigations Martin Gardiner, C.E. 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES, 1874. 

Vol. VIII. 

Contents. 

i • ' i i ;■ < ■ 

„ II.— Hospital Accommodation A. Roberts, M.R.C.S. 

„ III.— Criminal Stat i-ties of .\>.v<oiithY\ ale-, > ( .,. ris _ Rol i cston . 



IY.— Descriptioi 



■scription of Eleven new species ot ) 
Terrestrial and Marine Shells, from [ Join 
• -tralia ) 



Brazier, C.M.Z.S. 

, V.— Iron "Pyrites" J. Latta, Esq. 

, VI.— Svdney Water Supplv bv Gravitation James Manning, Esq. 
. VIE. -Nickel Minerals fr..m New Caledonia. . . Professor Liversidge. 
, YIIL-Iron Ore and Coal Deposits at Wallera- j profesgor Liversidge . 

, IX.-Someof'tL Result, <; f the Observation > „ c Eussell> B A> 



f Venus 
of Yenus as observed £ 



} Rev. Wm. Scott, 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 

OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 1875. 

Vol. IX. 



Article I.-Lisi 



ArticlelV.— Anniversary Address, by the Kev. W. B. Clarke, 

M.A., F.G.S., Vice-President 

„ V.— Notes on Deep Sea Soundings. By Eev. W. B. 

Clarke, MA., F.G.S 

VI.— Facts in American Mining. Bv S. L. Hrnsusan ... 
Vll.-Stanmferous D.posits ,d Tasmania (Illustrated). 

nil.— Permanent 'Water Supply to Sydney by 'Gravita- 

IX.— .Meir.'j )( >[i!an Water Supply. By James Manning 
A.— Water Supply to Sydney 'by Gravitation {Plans). 

By James Manning 

XI. -Scientific Notes. By H. C. Russell, B.A., Govern- 

XII.-Exam,,ie >,,' I'^mlo-Crystallization (Illustrated). 

till.— Tlie Mi- , --,1-, ■ s..utl. Wales. By Professor 



JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW r SOUTH WALES, 
1876. 
Vol. X. 



(Edited by Professor Liversidge.) 



By Rev. W. B. 



-inn off Moretoii liay. 



Article XII.— Effects of Forest Vegetation on Ciimai 
W. B. Clarke, M. A., F.E.S. ... 

VfM i - . - h ou> Dopo-it. Richn 



, \vi , . .,. - 1 i. ;■■ -'<" « 

., XV 11. — Donations -7/ t< 

„XVIIL— Keports from the Sections 28d t< 

1. Macrozamia spiralis. By F. Milford, M.D. 

{Two plates.) - 9b 

2. Transverse Section of F . ■ '■ ' 

showing Exostosis. By Hugh Paterson ... 299 

3. Notes on two Species of Insectivorous Plant? 

indigenous to this Colony. By J. U. C. Colyer 300 

4. Etching and Etchers. By E. L. Monteflore . . . 308 

•al Obser- 

H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Government 
„ XX.-Index. r ° n0mer .'.'• ■'•'• ■■'•■ 329 

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WA 
Vol. XI. 

(Edited by Professor Liversidge.) 
Article L— List of Officers, Fundamental Rules, By-laws, 
II.— Anniversary Address, by H. C. Russell, B.A., 

F.RAS.'. F.V - \ I - .» l 

Mi ; 

IV.-On Drwnw-io Ai»iru «. > ite\\ t -- 1 L'i.iiaimo 






Australia. By the 



ITHLU-ATrOVs. 



xticle IX.— On a New Method of extracting Gold, Silver, and 
other Metals from Pyrites. By W. A. Dixon, 
F.C.S 

\. \: ■■ '•■'.,; - 

tiurv Formations. B\ the Kev. ,1. £. Tenison- 

Woods, F.C.S., F.R.G.S 

\i \ - , • • i. rtauy Polyzoa. By 
R. Etheridge, junr., F.G.S 

„ XII.— Ctenaeanthus, a' Spine of Hybodus. By W. J. 
Barkas, M.E.C.S 

., XIII.— A System of Notation adapted to explaining to 
Students certain Electrical Operations. By the 
Hon. J. Smith, C.M.G.. M.D.. LI,. P.. ML.C. 

„ XIV.— Notes on the Meteorology, Natural History, &c., 
of a Guano Island ; and Guano and other 
Phosphatic Deposits, Maiden Island. 



A. Dixon, F.C.S 


165 to 181 


XV.— On some Australian Tertiary Corals. (Two 
plates.) By the Rev. J. E Tenison-Wooda, 






F.G.S., F.R.G.S 


183 to 195 


XVI.— On a new and remarkable Variable Star in the 




Constellation Ara. By J. Tebbutt, F. R.A .S. . . . 


197 to 202 


XVII.— On a Dental peculiarity of the Lepidosteida?. 
By W. J. Barkas, M.R.C.S 


203 to 207 


VIII. —A \,-w Fo>-il Fxtinct Species of Kangaroo, 
Stkenurm wuW(Owen). By the Rev . U . IL 






Clarke, M.A., F.R.S 


209 to 212 


XIX.— Note- on some recent Barometric Disturbances. 




By H. C. Russell, B. A., F.R. AS 


213 to 218 


XX.— Proceedings 


219 to 235 



-\A1I.-I.1-1 d I v 

XXIII.— Reports from the Sections. 



2. Notes on some local Species of Diatomaceee. 
ByG.D. Hirst 

, XXIV.— Appendix : Abstract of the Meteorological Ob- 
servations taken at the Sydney Observatory. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A.,* F.R.A.S., Govern- 
ment Astronomer 

, XXV.— List of Publications by the Society 



JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW su IT H 
1878. 
Vol. XII. 

(Edited by Prof. Liveraidge and Dr. Leibius. ) 



The Triang 



By H. C. Russell, 



Note! mi Jnpiter during his Opposition, 1878. 
i;v<;. i). Hirst 

Telescopes. I'.y W..I. Ma<-I><mnelf. K.K.A.S. 

v'oin'is. i'.y ii. c. l i:u^rii. i;.a.. K.il.A.S... 

' " jin,l Saturn, 187!>. ' !i\ .John TeMmtt, 



, On a N'tw K.-rni of Ivpiatorial Mounting. By 
H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 

*D*o£ F e C B s! 0r00k Slh ^ Mme ' By A ' \ '. 

I.'.. Notes on the Incrustation of the Sydney 

Water Main. By Dr. Morris 

. An Apology for the Introduction of the Study 
of Photography in our Schools of Art and 

.. On^Musie. i'ly M..i,V '.lid. <\'ieilhan"! '.'.'. 







A OF 


P 


A 






Billion dissected: Henry Bessemer 
r.winuth-'nld. Cloncurry 


'.'. 






Blackwood 








Blue-gum (Eucalyptus globulus), its 






188 


rsary.l.yC. 


Rollee 


, 


; ,rimentonthe;by 






21 


H. < . Kh-.- 11. B.A., F.R.A.S 


, ;, 






Bo„r..„k Silver Mine 








Boring at Newington, depth 1 ,l..o ft. 

Botany and economical value of 




19 
















T. . > 1,-W.mK 1 .c.s., r.L.s. 










. .,.. ;i ...V,! 










is:; 












l "; , ;;;; l ,; : r' usUtum m 


^vdnoj 


m 


1;, ;; , i; tull '. 1 :.. s !! l,s . cni . ,t ! on ; hst ... to ; 










fW. Wr l,y„ . 




































c 






43 












L 






falvptn.i.Ue. Ta.-manian 








CanceUarida, „ 






















\V. A. hixon, F.C.S., E.I.C. 


I b 5 


127 


Eucalyptus amygdal 


na 


(.'oiK'li(.lo'--y, Australian 






globulus 






30 


its uses 










height of 








E^cajyptus, test f 




■ vntrio.ofMai 


an,l 






'-ssii, an.l I"'! 
hy U,v. .1." E. Tem.son-W 






Expeditions, transit 










F.G.S., F.L.S 




fl7 






Correct. <;'i, pr-i^sed. to the a^s 


th.-.I 
















f 




.. 63-69 












Fagus Cunninghami 
Famines, periodicit 




KL'srad.omctcr ' Z 






of Indian 










• -uauian 






. of Tasmania; by 






50 


Rev. •). E.Tenisoc 












Fauna of Tasmania, 


books referring 


D 
















Ferns, species of, IS 




Rirrv.lium "Franklinii 










Daily photographs of the sun' 1 '. 












10 


tvAlia 





metallurgy of nickel a 



H 

! ■ Sydney <)'-<■: vatory . 

Hakea pugioniformis 20 G9 

;iart, Ludovioo \V. The rise and I Lunar occupations of stars 

Anapolouv for „ 

the introduction of the' study of M 

;hv in our Schools of Art I MacI)onnen , w . ^ RR A s Qb . 

.ncaiyi-ti-::::::::::::::: 1o | j!^.^ ! : r -^; i ;; ; ; i . ; 

ffut^r.^ :^.!- 1 : :.:::::::::::: *8 | f~: n 

- ■■•. ■■ 

and Chatham Island shells 43 

Meteorograph, Mr. i:u- ll's _ .. 

; of the Sydney water- ' months 

.';•' iii-.'.t.'.- ' \v.^i^:i'r['th^u\'luj^ """. '."....'. 

irrapliv in our Schools of Art and Miocene corals 

269 MoUu8caofthe"C] • 

-notion of Ill M .- ,-i : ,i i . t Tasmania 

.!■■-■;■! - :.. .J. 1'., C.H. Some facts Morris Dr iiui'ii^tation ( '.f th't 

K 

:' ■ ; ' •' :ii:ul 

L 

Lapoi - i gigas 19 vfvrtle 



1")S Patelli.li>. Tasnianian 

j/dney Peppermint giim true.. 

207 I Periodicity of Indian f; 

onsof Peru, eartii.|uakr in .. 

........ 65 Phosphoric acid in gua 






i; i - Vof New si.i 
Uii>..-!i. f iT c." i;.A.'," 



Sections, Reports'. umtiif 



pplicationof 5 



Telescopic work on the Blue Moun- 



United States, observatories : 
Uses of blue- r : Q 



Thickness of local winds 


71) 


Venus, transit of, ex^aditioM...^. . 


. 


J 


. i'^77 

Ncwoasi, 11 u ..r 

. Ballina 


103 
104 


Volutida.', Tasmanian 


l^ 


w 












aer, ana yses ot S,, ,,.v^ .. 
of Pyrmont 






— Iquiqae 


109 








117 


Water-main, incrustation of the 


i id. '.s in >vdney Harbour 

Tii.ib.-r trade .»f Tasmania 


m:< 




27 










iM.vN A . , .1., mrndia.i 








ffiti 


W. A. Dixon, F.CS./F.I.C 






V.- ' ■',.,.: 


results of 


243 












61 








*j::g 






47 


Woods, Tenison, Rev. d. 1!., F.G.S., 






F.L.S. Tasmanian forests, their 




HI 


botany and economical value 


■: winds 








on 








1 ']:,;'■; ^». results of tran« 


243 
51 


ary fossil corals and polyzoa 






kar, oh spontaneou 


z 




7 





, Wednesday, and 
, and during the 



Certain of :! 
e obtained at the Society" 
Trans, of the Phil. Soc.